Study and Recognition of Organic Matter of Pastiglia Layer and Gliding of Safavid Period in Qazvin Chehelsotoun - Journal of Research on Archaeometry

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year 6, Issue 2 (2020)                   JRA 2020, 6(2): 157-173 | Back to browse issues page


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Hajiseyyedjavadi M, Fahimifar A, Hamzavi Y. Study and Recognition of Organic Matter of Pastiglia Layer and Gliding of Safavid Period in Qazvin Chehelsotoun. JRA. 2020; 6 (2) :157-173
URL: http://jra-tabriziau.ir/article-1-219-en.html
1- Payame Noor University , hajsayyedjavady@pnu.ac.ir
2- Tarbiat Modares University
3- Tabriz Islamic Art University
Abstract:   (1269 Views)
The wall paintings of Qazvin Chehelsotoun Mansion include two periods in the early Safavid period and one period in the Qajar period. This topic has received little attention in the field of structural studies and stylistics. Investigating these decorations in order to understand the evolution of this art and considering the temporal precedence over other murals in the Safavid period seems necessary. The city of Qazvin is located in the northern part of Iran and west of its capital. Qazvin has been the capital city of Iran for more than half a century in the Safavid era.Today only a few important monuments of that era remained. That is why they all need special attention to identify, maintain and introduce.Among these monuments, the Chehelsotoun mansion is very important because of the remaining of the early Safavid murals.Pastiglia and gilding is one of the most complex and special methods of surface decoration in Islamic architecture of Iran, the flourishing of which should be sought in the Safavid period; This architectural array, which is a combination of organic materials as well as metallic and non-metallic minerals, was processed and executed during a special process. In order to properly protect the work and also to retrieve the technical information contained in it, as well as to obtain the technical information of this type of architectural arrangement in Safavid Iran, its artistic and technical recognition in Qazvin Chehelsotoun as one of the most important buildings in the capital. Safavidism becomes important and necessary. From the first capital of the Safavid period (in Tabriz) there is no layered and gilded array and Qazvin before Isfahan was considered and appropriate measures have been taken to create architectural arrays. The present study has studied the structure of layered and gilded arrays in the two Safavid periods (Shah Tahmaseb period and Shah Abbas period) in Qazvin Chehelsotoun. This research has been done with a laboratory approach with the aim of analyzing and understanding the structure of different parts of these arrays, including the organic and inorganic structure of the pastiglia layer, as well as the golden layer used on the pastiglia layer, called gilding. In this regard, sampling was done from the layer of pastiglia and gilding related to Shah Tahmaseb period and also the layer related to Shah Abbas Safavid period, which was evaluated using analyzes (SEM-EDS, FT-IR, GC-MS) and These samples were compared. The result of EDS analysis from the surface of the metal layer indicates high purity gold. Also, the mineral part of the pastiglia layer is composed of gypsum and a type of soil with a high percentage of iron (Hormuz or Armenian mud). Examination of SEM images on the samples showed the presence of residues of organic matter used in pastiglia and gold-plated arrays. Examination of the samples with GC-MS indicates the use of vegetable oils, which due to the significant amount of eighteen carbon compounds and their oxides, it can be attributed to flaxseed oil as a gold leaf adhesive in pastiglia layer arrays and Gilding has been used.
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Technical Note: Original Research |
Received: 2020/03/17 | Accepted: 2020/07/19 | Published: 2020/12/24 | ePublished: 2020/12/24

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