Investigation and Recognition of Organic Matterials of Pastiglia Layer and Gliding of Safavid Period in Chehel Sotoun Palace of Qazvin - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------
year 6, Issue 2 (2020)                   JRA 2020, 6(2): 157-173 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hajiseyyedjavadi S M, Fahimifar A, Hamzavi Y. Investigation and Recognition of Organic Matterials of Pastiglia Layer and Gliding of Safavid Period in Chehel Sotoun Palace of Qazvin. JRA 2020; 6 (2) :157-173
URL: http://jra-tabriziau.ir/article-1-219-en.html
1- Payame Noor University , hajsayyedjavady@pnu.ac.ir
2- Tarbiat Modares University
3- Tabriz Islamic Art University
Abstract:   (2277 Views)
The wall paintings of Qazvin Chehelsotoun Mansion include two periods in the early Safavid period and one period in the Qajar period. This topic has received little attention in the field of structural studies and stylistics. Investigating these decorations in order to understand the evolution of this art and considering the temporal precedence over other murals in the Safavid period seems necessary. The city of Qazvin is located in the northern part of Iran and west of its capital. Qazvin has been the capital city of Iran for more than half a century in the Safavid era.Today only a few important monuments of that era remained. That is why they all need special attention to identify, maintain and introduce.Among these monuments, the Chehelsotoun mansion is very important because of the remaining of the early Safavid murals.Pastiglia and gilding is one of the most complex and special methods of surface decoration in Islamic architecture of Iran, the flourishing of which should be sought in the Safavid period; This architectural array, which is a combination of organic materials as well as metallic and non-metallic minerals, was processed and executed during a special process. In order to properly protect the work and also to retrieve the technical information contained in it, as well as to obtain the technical information of this type of architectural arrangement in Safavid Iran, its artistic and technical recognition in Qazvin Chehelsotoun as one of the most important buildings in the capital. Safavidism becomes important and necessary. From the first capital of the Safavid period (in Tabriz) there is no layered and gilded array and Qazvin before Isfahan was considered and appropriate measures have been taken to create architectural arrays. The present study has studied the structure of layered and gilded arrays in the two Safavid periods (Shah Tahmaseb period and Shah Abbas period) in Qazvin Chehelsotoun. This research has been done with a laboratory approach with the aim of analyzing and understanding the structure of different parts of these arrays, including the organic and inorganic structure of the pastiglia layer, as well as the golden layer used on the pastiglia layer, called gilding. In this regard, sampling was done from the layer of pastiglia and gilding related to Shah Tahmaseb period and also the layer related to Shah Abbas Safavid period, which was evaluated using analyzes (SEM-EDS, FT-IR, GC-MS) and These samples were compared. The result of EDS analysis from the surface of the metal layer indicates high purity gold. Also, the mineral part of the pastiglia layer is composed of gypsum and a type of soil with a high percentage of iron (Hormuz or Armenian mud). Examination of SEM images on the samples showed the presence of residues of organic matter used in pastiglia and gold-plated arrays. Examination of the samples with GC-MS indicates the use of vegetable oils, which due to the significant amount of eighteen carbon compounds and their oxides, it can be attributed to flaxseed oil as a gold leaf adhesive in pastiglia layer arrays and Gilding has been used.
Full-Text [PDF 2422 kb]   (382 Downloads)    
Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Archaeometry
Received: 2020/03/17 | Accepted: 2020/07/19 | Published: 2020/12/24 | ePublished: 2020/12/24

References
1. Holakouee, Parviz. Understanding the technique and pathology of ornamental stratification in some historical monuments of the Safavid period in Isfahan (Aali Qapo, Chehel Sotoon and Hasht Behesht). (Unpublished). Dissertation to receive a master's degree. Under the Supervision of Samad Samanian and Hesam Aslani. Tehran University of the Arts. 2008. [in Persian] [هلاکویی پرویز. فن‏شناسی و آسیب‏شناسی لایه‏چینی تزیینات برخی از بناهای دورۀ صفوی اصفهان (عالی‏قاپو، چهل ستون و هشت بهشت). (منتشر نشده). پایان‏نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد، به راهنمایی صمد سامانیان و حسام اصلانی، دانشگاه هنر تهران. 1387.]
2. Hamzavi, Yaser. Methodology of preserving canvas-camouflaged murals, Specialized Doctoral dissertation, Isfahan University of Art. (Unpublished). Faculty of Preservation and Restoration. The field of Conservation and Restoration of Historical and Cultural Works and Objects. 2016. [in Persian] [حمزوی، یاسر. روش‏شناسی حفاظت از دیوارنگاره‏های بوم‏پارچه،(منتشر نشده). رساله دوره دکتری تخصصی، رشته حفاظت و مرمت آثار و اشیای تاریخی و فرهنگی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، دانشکده مرمت. 1395.]
3. Tinati Tina. Structural study of stratigraphic arrays in Vanak and Beit Lahm churches of Isfahan. (Unpublished). Dissertation to receive a master's degree. Under the supervision and guidance of: Yaser Hamzavi, Parviz Holakouee and Maria Perla Columbini. Tabriz University of Islamic Arts. 2019. [in Persian] [طینتی، تینا. مطالعۀ ساختاری آرایه‏های لایه‏چینی در کلیساهای وانک و بیت لحم اصفهان. (منتشر نشده). پایان نامه دوره کارشناسی ارشد، به راهنمایی: یاسر حمزوی و پرویز هلاکویی و ماریا پرلا کلمبینی، دانشگاه هنر اسلامی تبریز. 1398.]
4. HajiSeyyedJavadi, Seyed Mohsen. Structural study of golden arrays. Stratigraphy and analysis of its decorative motifs in the Safavid period in the historical mansion of Chehelston Qazvin PhD Thesis in Art Research. Tarbiat Modares University. Tehran. 2019. [in Persian] [حاجی سید جوادی، سیدمحسن. مطالعه ساختار آرایه‏های طلاکاری، لایه‏چینی و آنالیز نقوش تزئینی آن در دوره صفوی در عمارت چهل ستون قزوین. پایان نامه ی دکترای تخصصی رشته پژوهش هنر، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس. تهران. 1398.]
5. Mashrouteh, Shirin. Investigation of the remaining paintings in the mansion of Chehelston Qazvin. Postgraduate dissertation. Islamic Azad University. Tehran Branch. Faculty of Art and Architecture / Painting Department. 2012. [in Persian] [مشروطه، شیرین. بررسی نگاره‏های باقیمانده در عمارت چهل‏ستون قزوین. رساله دوره کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تهران مرکز. دانشکده هنر و معماری/ گروه نقاشی. 1391].
6. Dabir Siaqi, Mohammad. The history of Qazvin city and its monuments. Cultural Heritage- Handicrafts and Tourism Publications of Qazvin Province. First edition. 2002. [in Persian] [دبیرسیاقی، محمد. سیر تاریخ شهر قزوین و بناهای آن، انتشارات میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری استان قزوین .چاپ اول. 1381]
7. Pazouki, Naser, Shadmehr Abdolkarim. Iran's National Registered Works in the List of National Monuments from 1931 to 2005, published by Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization of Iran. Tehran. 2005. [in Persian] [پازوکی ناصر، شادمهر عبدالکریم. آثار ثبت‏شدۀ ایران در فهرست آثار ملی از سال 1310 الی 1384. تهران: سازمان میراث فرهنگی و گردشگری کشور. 1384.]
8. Eshraqi, Ehsan. Description of Paintings of the Safavid Statehouse in Abdi Beyg's Poems. Journal of Farhang. Vol. 71. Published by Institute of Humanities and Cultural Studies .2009; 1-13. [in Persian] [اشراقی، احسان. توصیف نقاشی‏های عمارت دولتخانه صفوی در اشعار عبدی بیگ. مجله فرهنگ، 1388: 71: 1-13.]
9. Parhizgari, Mehrzad. Chehelsotun. The Great Islamic Encyclopedia, Vol. 19. Published by The Great Islamic Encyclopedia Center. Tehran. 2012. [in Persian] [پرهیزگاری، مهرزاد. چهل‏ستون. دائره‏المعارف بزرگ اسلامی. جلد 19. تهران: مرکز دائره‏المعارف بزرگ اسلامی. 1391]
10. Qureshi, Seyedhadi. Investigation and introduction of tourism capabilities of Qazvin city- case Stud. Chehelston Palace Building, Master's dissertation. Islamic Azad University of Garmsar Branch. Faculty of Humanities / Department of Geography. 2013. [in Persian] [قریشی، سیدهادی. بررسی و معرفی توانمندی‏های گردشگری شهر قزوین. نمونه موردی. عمارت کاخ چهل‏ستون. رساله درجه کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد گرمسار. دانشکده علوم انسانی/ گروه جغرافیا. 1392]
11. Mishmastnehi M. The Application of Crystallographic Interpretation on Technical Study of Gypsum-Based Historical Materials (Case studies of stucco decoration of Kuh-e Khwaja and Gypsum Mortars from Shadiakh and Alamut). JRA. 2016; 1(2):1-14. [in Persian] [میش مست نهی، مسلم. کاربرد تحلیل‏های بلورشناسی در مطالعات فنی آثار تاریخی گچی (مطالعه‏ی موردی گچ بری کوه خواجه‏ی سیستان. ملات گچ شادیاخ نیشابور و ملات گچ قلعه الموت قزوین). پژوهه باستان سنجی ۱۳۹۴: 1(۲) :۱-۱۴] [DOI:10.29252/jra.1.2.1]
12. Hamzavi, Yaser. Salahshour, Fatemeh. Muzaffar, Farhang. Gilded cast plaster arrays in the monument of Sayyid Rakneddin Yazd. Bi-annual Scientific- Research Journal of Islamic Art Studies 2013, 19: 111-121. [حمزوی، یاسر، سلحشور فاطمه. مظفر. فرهنگ. طلاکاری آرایه‏های گچی قالبی در بقعۀ سید رکن‏الدین یزد، دو فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی مطالعات هنر اسلامی. 1392؛ 19: 111-121.]
13. Ahmadi, Hossein; Abed Esfahani, Abbas; Mohtasham, AdelehGilding Technique of Gilded orn aments on stone in Tehran's Golestan Palace Complex, Scientific Journal of Maremat & Me'mari-e Iran (quarterly), Vol. l, Art University of Isfahan, 2011. [in Persian]. [احمدی، حسین، عابد اصفهانی عباس، محتشم عادله. فن‏شناسی تزئینات طلاکاری روی سنگ در مجموعه کاخ گلستان تهران. دوفصلنامه مرمت و معماری ایران، 1390.]
14. Mohtasham, Adeleh, Technical study of Gilding ornaments on stony inscriptions in Vank Cathedral- Isfahan. Journal of research on archaeometry. 2017, 2(2): 77-89. [in Persian] [محتشم، عادله. مطالعه فنی تزئینات طلاکاری در کتیبه‏های سنگی کلیسای وانک در اصفهان، پژوهه باستان‏سنجی 1395. 2(2): 77- 89.] [DOI:10.29252/jra.2.2.77]
15. Nadolny JM. The techniques and use of gilded relief decoration by northern European painters, c. 1200-1500 (Doctoral dissertation, University of London).
16. Bonaduce I, Colombini M.P, Diring S. Identification of Garlic in Old Gilding by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy. J. Chromatogr. A; 2006; 1107:.226-32. [DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2005.12.053]
17. Colombini MP, Modugno F, Giacomelli M, Francesconi S. Characterisation of proteinaceous binders and drying oils in wall painting samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A. 1999 Jun 18; 846 (1-2):113-24. [DOI:10.1016/S0021-9673(99)00344-1]
18. Jabbari, Mona; Fathi, Somayeh, An Investigation Function Palace Chehelsotun Qazvin. Armanshahr, Vol. 1, 2008; 66-75. [in Persian] [جباری، منا؛ فتحی، سمیه. بررسی کارکردی کاخ چهل‏ستون(کلاه فرنگی) قزوین، آرمانشهر، 1: 1387]
19. Monshi Ghomi, Ghazi Ahmad, Golestan-e Honar, Correction by Ahmad Soheili Khansari, Third Edition, Manouchehri Library, Tehran. 1987. [in Persian] [منشی قمی، قاضی میراحمد شرف‏الدین حسین(قرن 10 ه.ق.). گلستان هنر، به اهتمام احمد سهیلی خوانساری، ، چاپ سوم، تهران: کتابخانه منوچهری. 1366]
20. Khanipour, Maryam - Rasouli, Massoud - Hashemian, Nafiseh. Preparing of biological samples for observing with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Iranian Journal of Laboratory Knowledge- 7(1): 2019; 13-26. [in Persian] [خانی‏پور مریم، رسولی مسعود، هاشمیان نفیسه. آماده‏سازی نمونه‏های زیستی به منظور تصویربرداری با استفاده از میکروسکوپ الکترونی روبشی،فصلنامه تخصصی دانش ازمایشگاهی ایران 1398، 7(1): 13- 26.]
21. Mir Hosseini Sarjam, Seyed Mostafa - Sadeh, Roshanak - Hashemian Kakhki, Nafiseh - Amir Shakari, Solmaz. Principles of imaging at low voltage with scanning electron microscopy. Iranian Journal of Laboratory Knowledge. 2015; 3(3):15-23. [in Persian] [میرحسینی سرجمع سید مصطفی، ساده روشنک، هاشمیان کاخکی نفیسه، امیرشکاری سولماز. اصول تصویربرداری در ولتاژهای بسیار پایین با میکروسکوپ الکترونی روبشی، فصلنامه تخصصی دانش آزمایشگاهی ایران 1394، 3(3): 15- 23.]
22. Hamzavi Y. Gypsum Nails as a Solution for Efficient Strengthening and Maintaining of Historical Architectural Decorations. JRA. 2017; 3 (2):103-107. [in Persian] [حمزوی یاسر. استفاده از میخ گچی،راهکاری برای استحکام بخشی و ماندگاری آریه های معماری تاریخی. پژوهه باستان سنجی 1396، 3(2): 103-107] [DOI:10.29252/jra.3.2.103]
23. Fremout W. Tryptic cleavage of proteinaceous paint: a high-performance protein binder analytical technique (Doctoral dissertation, Ghent University).
24. Gruia A, Raba DN, Dumbrava D, Moldovan C, Bordean D, Mateescu C. Fatty acids composition and oil characteristics of linseed (Linumusitatissimum L.) from Romania. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies. 2012; 18 (2):136-40.

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Research on Archaeometry

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb