Elemental Composition of Glass Artifacts excavated from Takht-e Suleiman World Heritage Site and Ardabil Ancient Sites in Northwestern Iran by Micro-PIXE - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
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1- AEOI , daghaaligol@aeoi.org.ir
2- Ardabil Cultural Heritage Office
3- AEOI
Abstract:   (216 Views)
This paper reports and discusses elemental composition results obtained from analysis of 36 glass fragments discovered from the Takht-e Suleiman World Heritage Site and Ardabil historical sites in northwestern Iran. The analyzed samples dated from the Sassanid to the Islamic period. The glass objects analyzed in this study include decorative objects such as bracelet, pieces of vessels, and indefinites form such as chunk and raw materials, which are in different colors of light and dark green, emerald green, white, purple, turquoise, brown and black. Elemental analysis of these samples was performed using micro-PIXE technique in Van de Graaff Laboratory in the Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute in Tehran, Iran. By micro-PIXE analysis, the major and minor elements of these glasses were measured. Then, based on elemental analysis results, the important questions in technology and manufacturing technique, determining the raw materials used in manufacturing, determining the type of glass as well as investigation of trade and exchange of raw materials about analyzed glasses are answered. Furthermore, to investigate the provenance of artifacts and to determine the differences in the elemental compositions of glass excavated from Takht-e Suleiman World Heritage Site and Ardabil historical sites, our elemental composition results have been combined and compared with the reported results from other sites in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean, such as Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon and neighboring countries of Iran such as Iraq.
The micro-PIXE analysis was performed with microprobe system manufactured by Oxford Instruments using the 3 MV at Van de Graaff accelerators the Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute in Atomic Energy Organization of Iran. The samples were analyzed in a vacuum chamber using a beam of 2.2MeV protons focused to a diameter less than 10 μm. The beam current was in the range of 30 to 50 pA. Characteristic X-rays were detected using a Si(Li) detector with an active area of 60 mm2 positioned at an angle of 135 relative to the incident beam direction and with an energy resolution of 150 eV for Fe-Kα.
The results obtained from this study show that the analyzed glass from these areas are classified into 6 different groups based on the raw materials used in manufacturing. These classifications include 2 different groups of plant ash-soda-lime-silica glass (29 samples), natron glass type (3 samples), soda-lead-lime-silica glass (2 samples), lead- barium-silica glass (one sample) and potash-lime-silica glass (one sample). Two plant ash-soda-lime-silica glass which named Plant-ash A and Plant-ash B are completely separated based on the concentration of sodium oxide. In the Plant-ash A group, the weight percentage of sodium oxide varies between 17 to 20wt.%, while in the Plant-ash B group, the weight percentage of sodium oxide varies between 13% t o16wt.%.  Moreover, the results of elemental analysis of these samples confirm some samples whose origin and place of production are non-local and probably were imported from other areas such as Egypt or the eastern Mediterranean Sea regions and China through the trade and exchange of glass products.
     
Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Archaeometry
Received: 2021/03/17 | Accepted: 2021/05/25

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