Elemental Composition of Glass Artifacts Excavated from Takht-e Suleiman World Heritage Site and Ardabil Ancient Sites in Northwestern Iran by Micro-PIXE - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------
year 7, Issue 1 (2021)                   JRA 2021, 7(1): 31-53 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Agha-Aligol D, Yousefi H, Moradi M. Elemental Composition of Glass Artifacts Excavated from Takht-e Suleiman World Heritage Site and Ardabil Ancient Sites in Northwestern Iran by Micro-PIXE. JRA. 2021; 7 (1) :31-53
URL: http://jra-tabriziau.ir/article-1-255-en.html
1- Physics and Accelerators Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran , daghaaligol@aeoi.org.ir
2- Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Ardabil Province, Ardabil, Iran
3- Physics and Accelerators Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (1453 Views)
This paper reports and discusses elemental composition results obtained from analysis of 36 glass fragments discovered from the Takht-e Suleiman World Heritage Site and Ardabil historical sites in northwestern Iran. The analyzed samples dating back to Sassanian /Islamic period. The glass objects in this study include decorative objects such as bracelet, pieces of vessels, and indefinites form such as chunk and raw materials, which are in different colors of light and dark green, emerald green, white, purple, turquoise, brown and black. Elemental analysis of these samples was performed using micro-PIXE technique in Van de Graaff Laboratory in the Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute in Tehran, Iran. By micro-PIXE analysis, the major and minor elements of these glasses were measured. Elements measured in all 36 samples include: sodium oxide (Na2O), magnesium oxide (MgO), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), silicon oxide (SiO2), phosphorus oxide (P2O5), Sulfur oxide (SO3), chlorine (Cl), potassium oxide (K2O), calcium oxide (CaO), titanium oxide (TiO2), manganese oxide (MnO) and iron oxide (Fe2O3). Chromium oxide (Cr2O3), cobalt oxide (CoO), copper oxide (Cu2O), zinc oxide (ZnO), strontium oxide (SrO) and lead oxide (PbO) were also measured in a number of samples. In addition, one sample contains barium oxide (BaO) and two samples contain tin oxide (SnO2) and arsenic oxide (As2O5). According to elemental analysis results, the important questions in technology and manufacturing technique, determining the raw materials used in manufacturing, determining the type of glass as well as investigation of trade and exchange of raw materials about analyzed glasses are answered. Furthermore, to investigate the provenance of artifacts and to determine the differences in the elemental compositions of glass excavated from Takht-e Suleiman World Heritage Site and Ardabil historical sites, our elemental composition results have been combined and compared with the reported results from other sites of the Eastern Mediterranean countries, such as Syria, Egypt, Palestine, Lebanon and neighboring countries of Iran such as Iraq.
Full-Text [PDF 2245 kb]   (600 Downloads)    
Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Archaeometry
Received: 2021/03/17 | Accepted: 2021/05/25 | Published: 2021/09/21 | ePublished: 2021/09/21

1. Moorey PR. Ancient mesopotamian materials and industries: the archaeological evidence. Clarendon; 2013.
2. Henderson J. Ancient glass: an interdisciplinary exploration. Cambridge University Press; 2013. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9781139021883]
3. Rehren T, Freestone IC. Ancient glass: from kaleidoscope to crystal ball. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2015;56:233-41. [DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2015.02.021]
4. Lin Y, Liu T, Toumazou MK, Counts DB, Kakoulli I. Chemical analyses and production technology of archaeological glass from Athienou-Malloura, Cyprus. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 2019; 23:700-13. [DOI:10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.08.011]
5. Oikonomou A, Triantafyllidis P. An archaeometric study of Archaic glass from Rhodes, Greece: Technological and provenance issues. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 2018;22:493-505. [DOI:10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.08.004]
6. Whitehouse D. 'Things that travelled': the surprising case of raw glass. Early Medieval Europe. 2003;12(3):301-5. [DOI:10.1111/j.0963-9462.2004.00135.x]
7. Brill RH, Stapleton CP. Chemical analyses of early glasses: volume 3: the years 2000-2011, reports, and essays. Corning Museum of Glass. 2012.
8. Henderson J, Chenery S, Faber E, Kröger J. The use of electron probe microanalysis and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for the investigation of 8th-14th century plant ash glasses from the Middle East. Microchemical Journal. 2016; 128:134-52. [DOI:10.1016/j.microc.2016.03.013]
9. Wypyski MT. Chemical analysis of early Islamic glass from Nishapur. Journal of Glass Studies. 2015:121-36.
10. Swan CM, Rehren T, Lankton J, Gratuze B, Brill RH. Compositional observations for Islamic glass from Sīrāf, Iran, in the Corning Museum of Glass collection. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 2017; 16:102-16. [DOI:10.1016/j.jasrep.2017.08.020]
11. Salehvand N, Agha-Aligol D, Shishegar A, Rachti ML. The study of chemical composition of Persian glass vessels of the early Islamic centuries (10th− 11th centuries AD) by micro-PIXE; Case Study: Islamic collection in the National Museum of Iran. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 2020; 29:102034. [DOI:10.1016/j.jasrep.2019.102034]
12. Agha-Aligol D, Jafarizadeh M, Moradi M. Micro-PIXE: A Powerful Technique in Measurement and Determination of Raw Materials of Glass Artifacts of Parthian Period from Shaur (Susa). Journal of Research on Archaeometry. 2018;4(1):47-65. [آقا علی گل، داود، جعفری زاده، مسلم؛ مرادی، محمود. میکروپیکسی: روشی توانمند در بررسی و تعیین مواد اولیه مصنوعات شیشه ای دوره اشکانی کاخ شائور (شوش)، پژوهه باستان سنجی، 1397 ،4 (1)، 47-65.] [DOI:10.29252/jra.4.1.47]
13. Agha-Aligol D, Jafarizadeh M, Rahbar M, Moradi M. Elemental Composition of Glass Beads Excavated From Saleh Davoud Tombs in Susa by Micro-PIXE: Evidences of Trade of Glass Artifacts during the Parthian Period. Journal of Research on Archaeometry. 2019;5(1):143-66. [آقا علی گل، داود، جعفری زاده، مسلم، رهبر، مهدی، مرادی، محمود. کاربرد روش میکروپیکسی جهت آنالیز عنصری مهره های شیشه ای مکشوفه از آرامگاه های صالح داود خوزستان: شواهدی از تجارت مصنوعات در دوره اشکانی، پژوهه باستان سنجی،1398، 5 (1)، 166-143.] [DOI:10.29252/jra.5.1.143]
14. Agha-Aligol D, Sodaei B, Khosravi L, Karimi M. Investigation and Study of Glass Artifacts of the Sassanid Period; Case Study: Jahangir Dome and Gouriyeh Glasses in Ilam Province using Micro-PIXE Technique. Journal of Research on Archaeometry. 2019;5(2):47-70. [آقا علی گل، داود، سودایی، بیتا، خسروی، لیلا، کریمی، مینا. بررسی و مطالعه مصنوعات شیشه ای دوره ساسانی، نمونه مطالعاتی: شیشه های محوطه گنبد جهانگیر و (تپه) گوریه در استان ایلام با استفاده از روش میکروپیکسی، پژوهه باستان سنجی،1398، 5 (2)، 70-47.] [DOI:10.29252/jra.5.2.47]
15. Bahadori R, Agha-Aligol D. Labratorial Studies on the Blue and Green Beads Used in the Prehistoric Ornaments of National Museum of Iran. pazhoheshha-ye Bastan shenasi Iran. 2018; 8(18):45-62. [بهادری، رؤیا، آقا علی گل، داود. مطالعات آزمایشگاهی تعدادی از مهره‌های آبی و سبز به‌کاررفته در زیورآلات پیش‌ازتاریخ موزه ملی ایران، پژوهش‌های باستان‌شناسی ایران،1397، 8(18)،45-62.]
16. Sarferaz A A, Kiani M Y. Takht-e sulyman. Tabriz, Moaseseh ye Tarikh va Farhang Iran.1347. [سرفراز، علي اكبر و کيانی، محمد يوسف. تخت سليمان، مؤسسه تاريخ و فرهنگ ايران، تبريز، 1347.]
17. Wiegartz H. Archaologischer Anzeiger.tumulus tepe Majid.1965;788
18. Naumann R. Die Ruinen von Tacht-e Suleiman und Zendan-e Suleiman und Umgebung. Führer zu archäologischen Plätzen in Iran. 1977.
19. Wilson J C. History of Iranian art, translated by Masoud Rajbnia, Tehran: bongah tarjomeh va nashre ketab.1356. [ویلسن، کریستی. تاریخ صنایع ایران، ترجمه مسعود رجب‏ نیا، تهران: بنگاه ترجمه و نشر کتاب، چاپ اول، 1356.]
20. Kambakhsh fard S. An inscription of Sabalan mount. Bastanshenasi va honare Iran.1347; 1, 55-9. [كامبخش فرد، سيف‏الله. سنگ نبشته ‏هايي در اطراف سبلان، «باستان شناسي و هنر ايران»، ش 1، 1347، صص 55 تا 59.]
21. Haerinck E. Painted pottery of the Ardabil style in Azerbaidjan (Iran). Iranica Antiqua. 1978; 13:75. [هرینگ، ارنی. سفال ایران در دوره اشکانی،1376، ترجمه حمیده چوبک، تهران: سازمان میراث فرهنگی کشور.]
22. Yousefi H. Site of Qonaq Qiran (ruin dez), national registration file, Ardabil archive of ministry of cultural heritage, handicrafts and tourism. 1381. [یوسفی، حسن، قلعه قوناخ قیران(رویین دز)، پرونده ثبت ملی اثر، سازمان میراث فرهنگی کشور، مرکز اسناد و آرشیو اداره کل میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری، 1381.]
23. Yousefi H. Site of shahar yeri and mekteb oshaglari, national registration file, Ardabil archive of ministry of cultural heritage, handicrafts and tourism.1381. [یوسفی، حسن، محوطه باستانی شهریری و مکتب اوشاقلاری، پرونده ثبت ملی اثر، سازمان میراث فرهنگی کشور، مرکز اسناد و آرشیو اداره کل میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری، 1381].
24. Deravianco A, Zedi M, Zenin A, Gladishu S, Shapkin A. Archaeological study report of the joint expedition of Russia and Iran, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, Omal-Banin Ghafori, Tehran: moalef, moaseseh ye binal melel yeh motaleate gerdesh geri vehsht mina. 1392; 4, 7-22. [درویانکو، آناتولی، زیدی، محسن، زنین، آناتولی، گلادیشو، سرگی، شاپکین، آندری کریوو. گزارش بررسی باستان‏ شناختی هئیت مشترک روسیه- ایران در کرانه ‏های جنوبی دریای مازندران، باستان شناسی ایران، به کوشش ام‏ البنین غفوری، تهران: مؤلف، مؤسسه بین‏المللی مطالعات گردشگری وهشت مینا، ش 4، سال چهارم، 1392، 22-7.]
25. Burney CA. Meshkin shahr in Iran, 1979; 156-5.
26. Ferdowsi A G. Shahnameh Ferdowsi, Mashhad: Sokhan Goster. 1348. [فردوسی، ابوالقاسم. شاهنامه، مشهد، سخن گستر، 1384.]
27. Behazin D. Ardabil (what do I know from Iran?), Tehran: deftere pezhohesh hayeh farhangi.1382. [به ‏آذین، داریوش. اردبیل (از ایران چه میدانم؟). تهران: دفتر پژوهش های فرهنگی، چاپ اول، 1382.]
28. Mustawfī Q, ḤamdAllāh Ibn Abī Bakr ibn Aḥmad. Nuzhat-al-qulūb, translated by Moḥammad Dabīr Siyāqi, Tehran: ketabkhane Tahury.1336. [مستوفی قزوینی، حمداللّه ‏بن ابى بكربن احمد. (1336). نزهۀ‏القلوب. به كوشش محمّد دبير سياقى، تهران: كتابخانه طهورى.]
29. Stevens R. The land of the great Sophy. London: Methuen; 1962.
30. Yaghout H, Shahab al-din Abu Abdulah. Mojem al-boldān, Tehran, Bina.1965; 1. [یاقوت حموی، شهاب الدین ابوعبداله الحموی الرومی. معجم البلدان، ج 1، تهران: بی نا، 1965.]
31. Johansson SA, Campbell JL. PIXE: A novel technique for elemental analysis.1988. [DOI:10.1016/S0003-2670(00)84112-4]
32. Nastasi M, Mayer JW, Wang Y. Ion beam analysis: fundamentals and applications. CRC Press; 2014. [DOI:10.1201/b17310]
33. Vicenzi EP, Eggins S, Logan A, Wysoczanski R. Microbeam characterization of corning archeological reference glasses: new additions to the smithsonian microbeam standard collection. Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and technology. 2002; 107(6):719. [DOI:10.6028/jres.107.058]
34. Sayre EV, Smith RW. Compositional categories of ancient glass. Science. 1961; 133(3467):1824-6. [DOI:10.1126/science.133.3467.1824]
35. Blomme A, Degryse P, Dotsika E, Ignatiadou D, Longinelli A, Silvestri A. Provenance of polychrome and colourless 8th-4th century BC glass from Pieria, Greece: a chemical and isotopic approach. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2017;78:134-46. [DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2016.12.003]
36. Phelps M, Freestone IC, Gorin-Rosen Y, Gratuze B. Natron glass production and supply in the late antique and early medieval Near East: The effect of the Byzantine-Islamic transition. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2016;75:57-71. [DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2016.08.006]
37. Carmona N, Villegas MA, Jiménez P, Navarro J, García-Heras M. Islamic glasses from Al-Andalus. Characterisation of materials from a Murcian workshop (12th century AD, Spain). Journal of Cultural Heritage. 2009;10(3):439-45. [DOI:10.1016/j.culher.2008.12.005]
38. Qin Y, Wang Y, Chen X, Li H, Xu Y, Li X. The research of burning ancient Chinese lead-barium glass by using mineral raw materials. Journal of Cultural Heritage. 2016;21:796-801. [DOI:10.1016/j.culher.2016.04.003]
39. De Bardi M, Hutter H, Schreiner M, Bertoncello R. Potash-lime-silica glass: protection from weathering. Heritage Science. 2015;3(1):1-9. [DOI:10.1186/s40494-015-0051-4]
40. Zhang B, Cheng HS, Ma B, Li QH, Zhang P, Gan FX, Yang FJ. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China). Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 2005;240(1-2):559-64. [DOI:10.1016/j.nimb.2005.06.154]
41. Jackson CM, Paynter S, Nenna MD, Degryse P. Glassmaking using natron from el-Barnugi (Egypt); Pliny and the Roman glass industry. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 2018;10(5):1179-91. [DOI:10.1007/s12520-016-0447-4]
42. Henderson J, An J, Ma H. The archaeometry and archaeology of ancient Chinese glass: a review. Archaeometry. 2018;60(1):88-104. [DOI:10.1111/arcm.12368]
43. Rosenow D, Meek A, Phelps M, Freestone I. Things that travelled-Mediterranean Glass in the First Millennium CE. UCL Press; 2018. [DOI:10.2307/j.ctt21c4tb3]
44. Topić N, Radović IB, Fazinić S, Šmit Ž, Sijarić M, Gudelj L, Burić T. Compositional analysis of Late Medieval glass from the western Balkan and eastern Adriatic hinterland. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 2019; 11(5):2347-65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12520-019-00805-8 [DOI:10.1007/s12520-018-0712-9]
45. Fiorentino S, Venezia B, Schibille N, Vandini M. Streams across the Silk Roads? The case of Islamic glass from Ghazni. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. 2019; 25:153-70. [DOI:10.1016/j.jasrep.2019.04.002]
46. Shortland AJ, Kirk S, Eremin K, Degryse P, Walton M. The Analysis of Late Bronze Age Glass from Nuzi and the Question of the Origin of Glass‐Making. Archaeometry. 2018 Aug;60(4):764-83. [DOI:10.1111/arcm.12332]
47. Machado A, Wolf S, Alves LC, Katona-Serneels I, Serneels V, Trümpler S, Vilarigues M. Swiss stained-glass panels: an analytical study. Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2017; 23(4):878-90. [DOI:10.1017/S1431927617000629]
48. Schibille N, Sterrett-Krause A, Freestone IC. Glass groups, glass supply and recycling in late Roman Carthage. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 2017 Sep; 9(6):1223-41. [DOI:10.1007/s12520-016-0316-1]
49. Van Wersch L, Loisel C, Mathis F, Strivay D, Bully S. Analyses of early medieval stained window glass from the monastery of Baume‐Les‐Messieurs (Jura, France). Archaeometry. 2016; 58(6):930-46. [DOI:10.1111/arcm.12207]
50. Silvestri A, Tonietto S, Molin G, Guerriero P. The palaeo-Christian glass mosaic of St. Prosdocimus (Padova, Italy): archaeometric characterisation of tesserae with copper-or tin-based opacifiers. Journal of archaeological science. 2014; 42:51-67. [DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2013.10.018]
51. Vataj E, Hobdari E, Röhrs S, Vandenabele P, Civici N. Analytical characterization of glass tesserae from mosaics of early Christian basilicas in Albania. Applied Physics A. 2017;123(1):1-5. [DOI:10.1007/s00339-016-0661-z]
52. Henderson J, McLoughlin SD, McPhail DS. Radical changes in Islamic glass technology: evidence for conservatism and experimentation with new glass recipes from early and middle Islamic Raqqa, Syria. Archaeometry. 2004;46(3):439-68. [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2004.00167.x]
53. Freestone IC, Gorin-Rosen Y, Hughes MJ. Primary glass from Israel and the production of glass in late antiquity and the early Islamic period. MOM Éditions. 2000;33(1):65-83
54. Freestone IC. Composition and affinities of glass from the furnaces on the island site, Tyre. Journal of Glass Studies. 2002; 67-77.
55. Mirti P, Pace M, Negro Ponzi MM, Aceto M. ICP-MS Analysis of Glass Fragments of Parthian and Sasanian Epoch from Seleucia and Veh Ardaš? R (Central Iraq). Archaeometry. 2008; 50(3):429-50. [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2007.00344.x]
56. Mirti P, Pace M, Malandrino M, Ponzi MN. Sasanian glass from Veh Ardašīr: new evidences by ICP-MS analysis. Journal of Archaeological Science. 2009; 36(4):1061-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2008.12.008]
57. Wood M, Panighello S, Orsega EF, Robertshaw P, van Elteren JT, Crowther A, Horton M, Boivin N. Zanzibar and Indian Ocean trade in the first millennium CE: the glass bead evidence. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences. 2017; 9(5):879-901. [DOI:10.1007/s12520-015-0310-z]

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Research on Archaeometry

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb