Investigation and Presentation of Geochemical Model of Silver-Based Metal Objects from the Elamite Period (Study Samples of Silver Objects in the Collection Jubji Kalmakreh Arjan) - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------
year 7, Issue 1 (2021)                   JRA 2021, 7(1): 145-165 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Darabi M. Investigation and Presentation of Geochemical Model of Silver-Based Metal Objects from the Elamite Period (Study Samples of Silver Objects in the Collection, Jubji, Kalmakreh, Arjan). JRA. 2021; 7 (1) :145-165
URL: http://jra-tabriziau.ir/article-1-265-en.html
Faculty of Conservation and Restoration, Art University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran , mm_darabi@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1052 Views)
During the '60s and '80s, three valuable Elamite collections of Arjan, Kalmakareh, and Jobji were accidentally discovered in the west and southwest region of Iran. The quantity and value of their metal objects indicate the glory of the Elam era in Iran. This paper examines the data obtained from the geochemical study of silver alloys from the mentioned collections. In this paper, 23 silver samples from the collections have been analyzed by portable XRF method to test the alloy and to answer the two major research questions. Investigation of the data revealed that the presence of the Platinum group elements (PGE) Platinum-Group Elements can be classified as a geochemical model of these objects. Also, the presence of the element iridium could be determined as their chemical fingerprint. Based on these findings, it can be said that the primary ore of the objects of these three collections was supplied from a single geographical area.
Full-Text [PDF 1508 kb]   (539 Downloads)    
Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Archaeometry
Received: 2021/05/23 | Accepted: 2021/08/21 | Published: 2021/09/21 | ePublished: 2021/09/21

References
1. Motamedi N. Activity report of the first season of exploring Kolmakreh cave. Unpublished Lorestan Cultural Heritage Documentation Center.1992. [ in Persian] [معتمدي، نصرت الله. گزارش فعالیت فصل اول کاوش غار کلماکره. منتشر نشده مرکز اسناد میراث فرهنگی لرستان. 1371.]
2. Robbiola L, Blengino JM, Fiaud C. Morphology and mechanisms of formation of natural patinas on archaeological Cu-Sn alloys. Corrosion Science. 1998 Dec 1;40(12):2083-111. [DOI:10.1016/S0010-938X(98)00096-1]
3. Robbiola L, Fiaud C. Corrosion structures of long-term burial Cu-Sn alloys: influence of the selective dissolution of copper. Editions de la Revue de Métallurgie. 1993(6):157-62.
4. Robbiola L, Portier R. A global approach to the authentication of ancient bronzes based on the characterization of the alloy-patina-environment system. Journal of Cultural Heritage. 2006 Jan 1;7(1):1-2. [DOI:10.1016/j.culher.2005.11.001]
5. Clarke FW. The data of geochemistry. US Government Printing Office; 1920
6. Rollinson H. Using geochemical data. Evaluation, presentation, interpretation. 1993;1
7. Pernicka E. Provenance determination of archaeological metal objects. InArchaeometallurgy in global perspective 2014 (pp. 239-268). Springer, New York, NY. [DOI:10.1007/978-1-4614-9017-3_11]
8. Helwing B. Silver in the early state societies of Greater Mesopotamia. Metals of Power-Early Gold and Silver. 2014:411-21.
9. Meyers, P. Z . Major and Trace Elements in Sasanian Silver. Archaeological Chemistry, Advances in Chemistry Series, 138, American Chemical , 22-23.1975. [DOI:10.1021/ba-1974-0138.ch003]
10. Smith CS. The interpretation of microstructures of metallic artifacts. InApplication of science in examination of works of art. Proceedings of the seminar: September 7-16, 1965, conducted by the Research Laboratory, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts 1965 Sep 7 (pp. 20-52).
11. Gordus AA. Quantitative non-destructive neutron activation analysis of silver in coins.
12. Cope LH. The metallurgical examination of a debased silver coin of Maximinus Daza issued by Constantine I. Archaeometry. 1973 Jul;15(2):221-8. [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.1973.tb00092.x]
13. Caley ER. Chemical composition of Parthian, coins.
14. Kallithrakas-Kontos N, Katsanos AA, Touratsoglou J. Trace element analysis of Alexander the Great's silver tetradrachms minted in Macedonia. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 2000 Nov 1;171(3):342-9. [DOI:10.1016/S0168-583X(00)00268-8]
15. Hughes MJ, Hall JA. X-ray fluorescence analysis of late Roman and Sassanian silver plate. Journal of Archaeological science. 1979 Dec 1;6(4):321-44. [DOI:10.1016/0305-4403(79)90017-7]
16. Hajivaliei M, Mohammadifar Y, Ghiyasi K, Jaleh B, Lamehi-Rachti M, Oliaiy P. Application of PIXE to study ancient Iranian silver coins. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 2008 Apr 1;266(8):1578-82. [DOI:10.1016/j.nimb.2007.12.101]
17. Khak PM, Kouhpar MK, Hajivaliei M, Khademi F. Elemental Analyses on Ilkhanid period coins by pixe: a case study on King Ghazan Silver coins. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry. 2013 Jan 1;13(2):83-8.
18. Nadoshan F, Farahi B, Nayeb M. Recognition of Metal Sources Used for Extracting Silver for Minting Parthian Coins in the Medes Province using the PIXE Method. Archaeological Studies (Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Tehran).2011. [ in Persian] [خادمی ندوشن فرهنگ، نایب پور محمد، سودایی بیتا. شناسایی منابع فلزی استحصال نقره برای ضرب سکه¬های اشکانی در استان ماد بزرگ با روش PIXE. مطالعات باستان-شناسی (دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی دانشگاه تهران). 1390 .]
19. Sodaei B, Hajivaliei M, Khademi Nadooshan F. Possible sources for extraction of silver by comparison of Parthian and Sasanian coins in Mede Satraps. Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry. 2013 Jan 1;13(1):161-70.
20. Hajivaliei M, Mohammadifar Y, Ghiyasi K, Jaleh B, Lamehi-Rachti M, Oliaiy P. Application of PIXE to study ancient Iranian silver coins. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 2008 Apr 1;266(8):1578-82. [DOI:10.1016/j.nimb.2007.12.101]
21. Tohidi F, Khalilian A. Arjan-Behbahan tomb objects review report. Quarterly Asar. 1982: 3) 7, 8, 9). [ in Persian] [توحیدی، فائق، خلیلیان، علی محمد. گزارش بررسی اشیاء آرامگاه ارجان-بهبهان. ۱۳۶۱: فصلنامه اثر. 3 (۷ و ۸ و ۹).]
22. Vatandoust A. Restoration, protection and technical study of a number of metal objects in Arjan treasure. Quarterly Asar. 1988(15,16). [ in Persian] [وطن دوست، رسول، مرمت، حفاظت و مطالعه فنی تعدادی از اشیاء فلزی گنجینه ارجان، مجله اثر، 1367 (15و16): 72-116.]
23. Henkelman WF. The other gods who are: studies in Elamite-Iranian acculturation based on the Persepolis fortification texts. Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten; 2008
24. Potts DT. The archaeology of Elam: formation and transformation of an ancient Iranian state. Cambridge University Press; 2016. [DOI:10.1017/CBO9781316148501]
25. VALLAT F. Kidin-Hutran et l'époque néo-élamite. Akkadica Bruxelles. 1984(37):1-7.
26. Álvarez-Mon J. Imago Mundi: Cosmological and ideological aspects of the Arjan bowl. Iranica antiqua. 2005 Apr;39(0):203-37. [DOI:10.2143/IA.39.0.503896]
27. Ghazanfari, H, Farzin A. Lorestan through history. Cultural Heritage Organization Publications, First Edition, Tehran.1993. [ in Persian] [غضنفری، حسین و علیرضا فرزین. رستان در گذر تاریخ . انتشارات سازمان میراث فرهنگی، چاپ اول، تهران.1372.]
28. MoradI J. Preliminary Geological Report of Kalmakreh Cave ", Lorestan Cultural Heritage Documentation Center. Unpublished.2007. [ in Persian] [مرادی، جلال.گزارش مقدماتی زمین شناسی غار كلماكره، مركز اسناد میراث فرهنگی لرستان. منتشر نشده.1386.]
29. Parviz A. Kolmakreh Cave Registration Proposal, National Registration Number, Cultural Heritage Documentation Center. Unpublished. 2003. [in Persian] [پرویز، احمد. پیشنهاد ثبت غار كلماكره، شماره ثبت ملی، مركزاسناد میراث فرهنگی. منتشر نشده.1382]
30. Mosavi M. Identification and survey report of Kalmakreh Poldakhtar Cave in Khorramabad, Lorestan Cultural Heritage Documentation Center. Unpublished. [in Persian] [موسوی، سیدمحمود. گزارش شناسائی و بررسی غار كلماكّره پلدختر خرم آباد، مركز اسناد میراث فرهنگی لرستان. منتشر نشده. 1386.]
31. Ghazanfari H. Kolmakar Cave, Journal of Works: No. 21.1992. [ in Persian] [غضنفری ، حسین. غار كلماكَرّ ، مجله اثر(21): 1371.]
32. Keys, David 1994 "to ancient treasure chest", in: The Independent, 1 Feb.1994
33. Boucharlat R. «Persians, Medes and Elamites, Acculturation in the Neo-Elamite Period», in: GB Lanfranchi, M. Roaf, R. Rollinger, eds., Continuity of Empire (?) Assyria, Media, Persia. Padova, Sargon Editrice e Libreria, 2003, pp. 181-231. (History of the Ancient Near East/Monographs-V). Abstracta Iranica. Revue bibliographique pour le domaine irano-aryen. 2005 May 15(Volume 26). [DOI:10.4000/abstractairanica.3323]
34. Nezarati Zadeh M. Technical and pathological study of silver objects attributed to Kalmakreh Cave, Lorestan, Master Thesis, Tehran University of Arts (Isfahan Campus), unpublished.2009. [ in Persian] [نظارتی¬زاده، منصوره. بررسی فنی و آسیب-شناسی اشیاء نقره¬ای منسوب به غار کلماکره لرستان، پایان¬نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه هنر تهران (پردیس اصفهان)، منتشر نشده. 1388.]
35. Shishegar A. Tomb of the Two Elamite Princesses of the House of King Shutur-Nahunte Son of Indada. Tehran: Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization. 2015. [in Persian]
36. Gigante GE, Ridolfi S, Ricciardi P, Colapietro M. Quantitative analysis of ancient metal artefacts by means of portable energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometers: a critical review. Cultural heritage conservation and environmental impact assessment by non-destructive testing and micro-analysis. 2004 Aug 15:9-18. [DOI:10.1201/9781482283983-6]
37. Wilson V. Research methods: sampling. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice. 2016 Mar 4;11(1 (S)):69-71. [DOI:10.18438/B8333V]
38. Herrmann B. Modern analytical Methods in Art and Archaeology. Chemical Analysis, Series Volume 155.
39. Goffer, Z . Archaeological Chemistry. Second Edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: . Published by John Wiley & Sons.2007.
40. Hackens, T. H. X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy Applied to Archaeology, Vol. 1,. PACT Rixensart.1997.
41. Craddock PT. Early metal mining and production. 1995 May.
42. Hezarkhani, Z. M.-t.. Archaeometallurgical Researches in Central Iran.ARCHäologischeMitteilungenaus Iran und Turan.2005.
43. Pernicka E, Bachmann HG. Archäometallurgische Untersuchungen zur antiken Silbergewinnung in Laurion. na; 1983.
44. Pernicka E, Eibner C, Öztunalı O, Wagner GA. Early Bronze Age metallurgy in the north-east Aegean. InTroia and the Troad 2003 (pp. 143-172). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-662-05308-9_10]
45. Gale NH, Stos-Gale ZA. Ancient Egyptian Silver. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. 1981 Aug;67(1):103-15. [DOI:10.1177/030751338106700110]
46. Gowland W. VI. -Silver in Roman and Earlier Times: I. Pre-historic and Proto-historic Times. Archaeologia. 1920; 69:121-60. [DOI:10.1017/S0261340900010985]
47. McKerrell, H. a. Some analyses of Anglo-Saxon and associated Oriental silver coinage. In (. E.T. Hall and D.M. Metcalf, Methods of Chemical and Metallurgical Investigation of Ancient Coinage (pp. 195-209). London, U.K: Royal Numismatic iSociety.1972.
48. Rahimi F. Lead isotopic detection in silverware of Qoli Qaleh Cave, Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on the Preservation and Restoration of Historical-Cultural Monuments.2003. [ in Persian] [رحیمی، فرشته، ردیابی ایزوتوپی سرب در ظروف نقره¬ای غار قوری قلعه، مجموعه مقالات ششمین همایش حفاظت و مرمت آثار تاریخی - فرهنگی، 1382.]
49. Guerra MF, Radtke M, Reiche I, Riesemeier H, Strub E. Analysis of trace elements in gold alloys by SR-XRF at high energy at the BAMline. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 2008 May 1;266(10):2334-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.nimb.2008.03.008]
50. Guerra MF. Elemental analysis of coins and glasses. Applied radiation and isotopes. 1995 Jun 1;46(6-7):583-8. [DOI:10.1016/0969-8043(95)00095-X]
51. Wanhill RJ. Embrittlement of ancient silver. Journal of failure analysis and prevention. 2005 Feb;5(1):41-54. [DOI:10.1361/15477020522294]
52. Vasilescu A, Constantinescu B, Stan D, Radtke M, Reinholz U, Buzanich G, Ceccato D. Studies on ancient silver metallurgy using SR XRF and micro-PIXE. Radiation physics and chemistry. 2015 Dec 1; 117:26-34. [DOI:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2015.07.008]
53. Guerra MF. Analysis of archaeological metals. The place of XRF and PIXE in the determination of technology and provenance. X‐Ray Spectrometry: An International Journal. 1998 Mar;27(2):73-80. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4539(199803/04)27:2<73::AID-XRS249>3.0.CO;2-5 [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4539(199803/04)27:23.0.CO;2-5]
54. Meyers P. Production of silver in antiquity: ore types identified based upon elemental compositions of ancient silver artifacts. InPatterns and process: A festschrift in honor of Dr. Edward V. Sayre 2003 (pp. 271-288).
55. Bacharach JL, Gordus AA. The purity of Sasanian silver coins: an introduction. Journal of the American oriental society. 1972 Apr 1:280-3. [DOI:10.2307/600656]
56. Aydın M. Authenticity of Roman imperial age silver coins using non-destructive archaeometric techniques.
57. Grün R, Stringer CB. Electron spin resonance dating and the evolution of modern humans. Archaeometry. 1991 Aug;33(2):153-99. [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.1991.tb00696.x]
58. Constantinescu B, Bugoi R, Oberlander-Tarnoveanu E, Parvan K. Some considerations on X-ray fluorescence use in museum measurements-the case of Medieval silver coins. Romanian Reports in Physics. 2005 Jul 1;57(4):1021.
59. Sodaei B, Masjedi Khak P, Khazaie M. A study of Sasanian silver coins employing the XRF technique. Interdisciplinaria archaeological Natural Sciences in Archaeology. 2013;4(2):211-5. [DOI:10.24916/iansa.2013.2.7]
60. Friedman AM, Conway M, Kastner M, Milsted J, Metta D, Fields PR, Olsen E. Copper artifacts: correlation with source types of copper ores. Science. 1966 Jun 10;152(3728):1504-6. [DOI:10.1126/science.152.3728.1504]
61. Budd P, Gale D, Pollard AM, Thomas RG, Williams PA. The early development of metallurgy in the British Isles. Antiquity. 1992 Sep;66(252):677-86. [DOI:10.1017/S0003598X00039375]
62. Proenza J., Gervilla F., Melgarejo J. C., Bodinier J.-L,Al-rich and Cr-rich chromitites from the ayari- Baracoa ophiolitic belt (Eastern Cuba) as the consequence of interaction between volatile-rich melts and peridotites in suprasubduction mantle. Econ. Geol. v. 94.1994. [DOI:10.2113/gsecongeo.94.4.547]
63. Bazamad, Marziyeh, Mirnrjad, Hassan,Rostami, AliandAminzadeh Mahrokh. Geochemistryand evaluating the abundance of platinum, palladiumand Gold elementsin chromite minerals of pyroxenitesfrom Darvazeh-Chenar in Neyriz area. Fifth Iranian Economic Geology Conference. 11 and 12 September 2013. [ in Persian] [مرضيه بازآمد، حسن ميرنژاد، علي رستمي و ماهرخ امين¬زاده. بررسي ژئوشيمي و ارزيابي فراواني عناصر پلاتينيوم، پالاديوم و طلا دركاني¬هايكروميت موجود در پيروكسنيت¬هاي دروازه چنار منطقه نيريز. پنجمین همایش زمین-شناسی اقتصادی ایران. ۲۰ و۲۱ شهریور۱۳۹۲.]

Send email to the article author


Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2022 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Research on Archaeometry

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb