Microscopic and Microstructural Study of Arsenic Copper from Spidej of Bazman - Journal of Research on Archaeometry

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year 6, Issue 2 (2020)                   JRA 2020, 6(2): 75-89 | Back to browse issues page


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Pourzarghan V, Bakhshandefard H, Heydari M. Microscopic and Microstructural Study of Arsenic Copper from Spidej of Bazman. JRA. 2020; 6 (2) :75-89
URL: http://jra-tabriziau.ir/article-1-245-en.html
1- Art University of Isfahan , vahidpourzarghan@gmail.com
2- Art University of Isfahan
3- Administration of Cultural Heritage and tourism of Sistan & Baluchestan
Abstract:   (652 Views)

Undoubtedly, one of the most important man-made objects in history is copper objects and their alloys, and in this regard, according to the available evidence, its oldest alloy, as copper-arsenic, has an important role in history. the existence of these works in various sites, especially in southeastern Iran since the early bronze age, confirms this claim. One of the most significant strategic site is located in the southeastern of Iran, is the spidej area. It is one of the most important and settlement centers belonging to the second and third millennia BC, which is located 40 km southwest of Bazman. And is located 3 km from Maxsan village. The distance from this area to Iranshahr is about 160 km. significant artifacts were obtained from spidej cemetery as follows: including stamps, ornaments (beads, pins, kohl holder pin, mirrors), agricultural tools, types of weapons etc. This led to the registration of the spidej site at number 6745 in the list of national monuments. In this study, a number of metal objects in spidej cemetery were identified to identify copper-arsenic compounds and the properties of this alloy. To study these objects, the SEM-EDS method was used to identify the microstructure of the metal matrix and the chemical composition of the elements, as well as the metallographic method to study the fabrication technique and phases studies. Instrument analysis of SEM-EDS shows that some objects are made of Cu-As-Zn alloy and some of Cu-As alloy are made by casting in mold and considered as arsenic-containing bronze alloys. Arsenic acts as an excellent oxidant element in metal, reducing the porosity of the alloy and significantly increasing its hardness. Deliberate addition of low levels of arsenic can act as a dioxin in the samples. Also, the presence of sulfide in the impurities of these objects can be due to the use of sulfide ores. The amount of calcium and potassium in the EDS spot analysis of the inclusions indicates that this amount of elements is owing to coal fuel. These elements are considered as flux charge melt and eventually absorb the slag. The SEM images suggest that the impurities in the whole matrix of the metal in a point and elongated from can be the reason for the presence of unrefined copper with spiess in the process of making these works. This discarded waste contains sulfide, arsenide and iron-like compounds. Also, the uniform and high percentage of arsenic 5 in these works shows that the manufacturing process of these alloys has been done by method Co-smelting. Metallographic studies show that physical operation on these works are a repetition of a cycle cold working and annealing work to further ductility these works.
 
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Received: 2020/09/30 | Accepted: 2020/12/21 | Published: 2020/12/24 | ePublished: 2020/12/24

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