The Technical Study of Paper-support Textile Inscription of Mulla Ismail's Mosque in Yazd IRAN - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------------
year 3, Issue 1 (2017)                   JRA 2017, 3(1): 65-76 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Soleimani P, Shishebori T. The Technical Study of Paper-support Textile Inscription of Mulla Ismail's Mosque in Yazd, IRAN. JRA 2017; 3 (1) :65-76
1- Art University of Tehran ,
2- Art University of Isfahan
Abstract:   (5054 Views)
Quranic inscriptions are among the decorative elements commonly used in Islamic architecture. This is largely due to the fact that among the Islamic visual arts, calligraphy is the most related with holy Quran. Through calligraphy, the Holy Speech is represented before the viewers’ eyes. In addition to immediate conveying of the holy message, the Islamic calligraphy meets, spiritually, an aesthetic function as well. Calligraphic inscriptions, containing various arts such as calligraphy, gilding as well as cover embellishment, comprise a major part of Persian artistic and historical works. In respect of historical studies, thus, Quranic inscriptions have always been on focus. In this connection, one of the major arts implemented onto fabric surfaces has been inscription the fabric support of which painted, mainly in water color, with geometric and floral patterns. Created in different eras with various techniques and materials, inscriptions are among the most important architectural decorations giving a special effect to historical buildings. Typically, the best examples of tile inscriptions can be found in the great mosque (or Masjid-e-Jami) as well as in the Shah Mosque (also known as Imam Mosque) of Isfahan. Similarly, among the brick and plaster inscriptions, those found in Lajeem Tower, Masjid-e- Jame Isfahan and in Peer Bakran Shrine respectively, are noteworthy. Also, the inscriptions used in the Red, Kabud, and Modavar Domes of Maraghe, represent a salient instance made of brick-and-tile fretwork. Meanwhile, wooden inscriptions in Masjid-e-Jami of Abyane, Kashan are delicate ones. Fabric-made inscription of Masjid-e-Mulla Ismaeel, Yazd, implemented on a paper support, is one of the architectural decorations survived from Qajar era. Mullah Ismaeel Mosque was built by Akhound Mullah Ismaeel Aghdaie in Yazd, at the time of Fath-Ali Shah Qajar. The shrine of Mullah Ismaeel, placed in a room at the southern side of the mosque, is a structure with Qajar architectural features. At the three sides of the southern platform of the shrine, the Holy Quranic Verse of Jomo’a (Friday) has been inscribed in a horizontal rectangular frame in Sulus Jali calligraphic style, decorated with arabesque margins on the plaster support around the frame. The inscription in question lacks a specific date and therefore, it is very difficult to determine its date. However, the plaster-made inscription implemented at either sides of the fabric-made inscription, bears a date, dating back to Qajar era. This inscription, mounted on the wall, includes floral motifs as well as Quranic verses. The historical era was attributed to Qajar time considering the features of the stone inscription installed in the mosque entrance. In terms of scientific research, scant attention has been given to the mentioned inscription and to similar works in Iran. In general, not many of such examples have survived the major part of which belongs to Safavid and Qajar era. Examination of such inscriptions, in terms of the kind of fabric used and colors and binders applied, can reveal important results helping to classify the various materials used in fabric-made inscriptions in different eras. Material identification of historical objects has a great importance for better understanding and reproduction process of ancient arts as a basic prior to applying the appropriate conservation method. Identification of materials such as paper, binder and pigments can help to distinguish a historical era and to have a better understanding of that era. For example, this can help to identify which techniques, or more importantly which materials, were used to apply a fabric-made inscription in Qajar era. A paper-based work, for instance, consists of other materials, other than paper itself, such as pigments, ink, binder, etc. Thus, it is first necessary to identify the chemical ingredients used in the work, as well as their interactions, based on the result of which, the most appropriate methods can be adopted and best materials applied in order to restore the work(s) in question. The present research mainly focused on identifying the materials used to make paper, binder and color applied in discussed inscriptions. The results, based on commonly used methods as well as instrumental techniques (such as FTIR and SEM-EDS) indicated that the binder and the support used were mainly composed of carbohydrates. Also, the fabric used was made of cotton and the paper of pulp (obtained from worn out clothes). The pigments applied were organic and the painting technique was watercolor. To implement the inscription, in practice, the artist first would stick the fabric onto a paper support. Then, to draw the desired lines onto the fabric surface, the fabric was burnished. Finally, the inscription was painted and mounted on the wall.
Full-Text [PDF 1284 kb]   (1624 Downloads)    
Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Archaeometry
Received: 2016/12/26 | Accepted: 2017/06/16 | Published: 2017/06/22 | ePublished: 2017/06/22

1. Zaki Mohammad H. Iranian industrial history (after Islam). Translated by Khalili M.A. Tehran: Eghbal; 1984.[in Persian]
2. Hajiani S, Madahi Ghivi M. Recognition of fabric paintings on the Allah Allah dome of Sheikh Safi-o-din Ardabili’s tomb [Unpublished]; 2011. [in Persian]
3. Hamzavi Y, Vatandoust R, Ahmadi H. An investigation and identify of essence of marouflaged canvasmural as a specific style of islamic architectural decoration in Iran. Journal of Reasearch Islamic Architecture 2017;4(13):130–48. [in Persian]
4. Koochakzaei A, Nemati Babayloui A, Daneshpoor L. Identification of pigments used in decoration of paper inscription related to ansarin house of Tabriz. Color Science and Technology 2015;9:297–306. [in Persian]
5. Mostaghasi S. Technological, pathology and presenting the paper inscriptions for conservation and restoration plan to the year 1322 with textile support [Unpublished M.A Thesis]. Art University of Isfahan; 2017. [in Persian]
6. Seyyedahmadi M, Samanian K. Examining the techniques used in a large format photograph of Ahmad Shah Qajar using device analysis. Journal Management System 2016;25(3):96–113. [in Persian]
7. Mahgoub H, Bardon T, Lichtblau D, Fearn T, Strlič M. Material properties of Islamic paper. Herit Sci 2016;4:34. [DOI:10.1186/s40494-016-0103-4]
8. Karimy A, Holakooei P. Micro-Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive characterization of binding medium used in persian painting. Maremat & Memari-e-Iran 2014;4(8):19–46. [in Persian]
9. B. Kasiri M, Younesi B, Yajam A. Identify historical paper fibers to dating feasibility of unknown samples. Journal of Research on Archaeometry 2016;2(1):29–38. [in Persian]
10. Khadem zadeh MH. Historical mosques of Yazd city. Tehran: Cultural Heritage Base of Historical Yazd City; 2005. [in Persian]
11. Shishebori T. Conservation & restoration of the western side section of plaster inscription of Mulla Ismail’s tomb in Yazd [Unpublished B.A Thesis]. Art University of Isfahan, 2008. [in Persian]
12. Talebpour F, Ayatollah M. Principals of fabric analysis. Tehran: Al-Zahra University Press; 2003. [in Persian]
13. Soleimani P, Shishebori T. The fabric inscription of the tomb of Mullah ismaiel: An Archeological Study. The 2nd national conference on archaeology in Iran, Mashhad: 2015; 1–18. [in Persian]
14. Hosseini someah M, Azadi Boyaghchy M, Pourtahmasi K. A review of the properties of fibers of the Seljuk and Timurid papers using instrumental techniques for identifying their fibers. Honar-ha-ye-Ziba 2017;22:67–76. [in Persian]
15. Lienardy A. Manuel for paper conservation, maintenance and restoration. Translated by Sarvghad Moghadam Abollhassan. Mashhad: Islamic Research foundation; 2000. [in Persian]
16. Karimy A, Vatankhah G. Review the methods glue Analysis in pigment. In: Razani M, Ajorlo B eds. Articles of the first and second national conferences on the application of scientific analysis Archaeometry & restoration of cultural heritage. Tabriz: Tabriz Islamic Art University; 2012;165–208. [in Persian]
17. Stuart BH. Analytical techniques in materials conservation. John Wiley & Sons; 2007.
18. Saghafi M javad, Deh Pahlavan M, Zarineh H. Comparative and laboratory study of the Parthian-Sassanid textile fragment, from Moghadam museum of University of Tehran. Honar-Ha-Ye-Ziba 2011;45:35–43. [in Persian]
19. Roohi Azizi M, Vatandoust A, Malekian H. Tradition paper Restoration in Iran. Journal of Management System 2016;25(3):114–27. [in Persian]

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Research on Archaeometry

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb