Explanation of the Settlement and Cultural Patterns of the Northwestern Basin of Lake Urmia in During Chalcolithic Period - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
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year 7, Issue 1 (2021)                   JRA 2021, 7(1): 187-204 | Back to browse issues page

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Garavand A, Abedi A, Malekpour F. Explanation of the Settlement and Cultural Patterns of the Northwestern Basin of Lake Urmia in During Chalcolithic Period. JRA 2021; 7 (1) :187-204
URL: http://jra-tabriziau.ir/article-1-279-en.html
1- Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran , garavand.afra@gmail.com
2- Department of Conservation and Archaeometry, Faculty of Cultural Material Conservation, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran
3- Cultural heritage, tourism and handicrafts of Khoy city, Khoy, Iran
Abstract:   (1640 Views)
Northwest of Lake Urmia, which includes seven cities: Salmas, Khoy, Garaziaadin, Chaldoran, Showt, Poldasht and Maku; It is located on the south bank of the Aras River. Due to the geographical conditions and communication route between the South Caucasus, Eastern Anatolia, the Central Plateau and the south of Lake Urmia, as well as suitable environmental capacities, has been the basis for the presence of human societies in different historical and cultural periods.
Although the southern basin of Lake Urmia has been the subject of archaeological studies since the 19th century, the northern part of it, which has many capabilities and capabilities, has not been studied scientifically and the lack of scientific and methodical research in prehistoric times, especially Chalcolithic period is very noticeable. Considering that the set of environmental factors play an important role in the formation and spatial distribution of human societies in different cultural eras, it seems that human interactions with the environment in the northwestern basin of Lake Urmia show a different perspective. The present study for the first time will explain the settlement and cultural patterns of 21 Chalcolithic settlements and sites in the northwestern basin of Lake Urmia, which will suggest the time span from the beginning of the fifth to the middle of fourth millennium BC. The most important research question is what role and effect have environmental factors had on the formation, distribution and cultural interaction of copper and stone settlements in the northwest of Lake Urmia? In this regard, environmental factors such as altitude, climate, water resources, geology, roads and direction and the slope of the earth in relation to 21 Chalcolithic settlements were analyzed using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and the results showed that the most fundamental environmental factors in the formation and cultural interaction of Chalcolithic sites and settlements in this basin are three factors: "access to permanent water resources", "altitude" and "communication routs". The three factors indicate the dependence on water resources in a linear fashion, dependence on the field of land and plains for agriculture and dependence on transportation routes for trade.
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Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Archaeometry
Received: 2021/04/28 | Accepted: 2021/08/21 | Published: 2021/09/21 | ePublished: 2021/09/21

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