Identification of the materials and pigments used in the rooms of the Dormiani- home (from the Qajar dynasty) - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
year 6, Issue 1 (2020)                   JRA 2020, 6(1): 47-66 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Firooznia A, Ashrafi A, Bahrololoumi F. Identification of the materials and pigments used in the rooms of the Dormiani- home (from the Qajar dynasty). JRA. 2020; 6 (1) :47-66
1- Art University of Tehran ,
2- Islamic Azad University OF Yazd
3- Research Institute of Cultural Heritage & Tourism
Abstract:   (800 Views)
During the Qajar period, due to the influence of European artists, the method of oil painting became very popular in Iran, where this trend was common not only on cloth canvases but also on decoration of the walls of buildings. The western art influenced not only the use of materials, but also the method of execution and even the type of designs, and led to the blending of Western artistic methods with Iranian ones. During the Qajar period, various designs were used to decorate the walls, and traditional and western colors were used, sometimes in combination or separately, to paint the designs. According to the researches, the most used colors in the Qajar period are: lead white, calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, huntite, barium sulfate, zinc oxide, ochre, amber, arsenic, orpiment, vermilion, lead chromate, green Silo, azurite, ultramarine, Prussian blue, malachite, chrome, cerulean, carmine, brass (copper & zinc), silver, gold, ivory for black Etc. Sadat-i-Dormiani's house is one of the unknown traditional buildings belongs to Qajar era located in the Bid-Abad neighborhood of the Mosque of Isfahan Masjid Seyyed. This building has been registered as one of the national monuments of Iran on August 22, 2005, by No. 13013. The total area of this house is about 900 square meters, where it has now been converted to a hotel, called Sohrevardi. This traditional hotel contains beautiful decorations such as stucco decoration, mirror work, and murals. In this research, the importance of the some principles utilized in order to performing the walls like drawn patterns, the techniques and materials have been considered and finally, the obtained results was compared with the materials used in other Qajar paintings. Due to the fact that most of the colors applied in these decorations are gold, red, blue, and green, and considering the principle of the minimum interference, a very small amount of material containing the above-mentioned colors were sampled. The samples were named with codes like B1 (golden color), B2 (red color), B3 (blue color), and B4 (green color). Laboratory analysis methods have been utilized to identify the color of substrate, the pigments, the coating, and the protective coating. The characterization have been fulfilled by, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) for detecting organic matter, scanning electron microscope equipped with X-ray diffraction (SEM-EDS) to detect mineral elements and compounds and finally, the optical microscopy (OM) to realize and analyze materials and pigments. Based on the obtained results, the combination of huntite (Mg3Ca(CO3)4) and gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) has been utilized as the substrate of paints. Huntit has been used from the past to the present both as a white color and as a substrate for paintings. The applied colors were inorganic and the motifs were executed with an oil technique. The pigments used in the decoration of the building are golden powdered brass (copper and zinc), red lead with the chemical formula (Pb3O4), Prussian blue with the chemical formula (Fe4(Fe⦋CN⦌6)3), and green which was a combination of Prussian blue and green-earth (silo) with chemical formula (K⦋Al3+, Fe3+) (Fe2+, Mg2+)⦌(AlSi3, Si4)O10(OH)2). White lead with the chemical formula (2PbCO3.Pb(OH)2) has also been used to create color tones. Moreover, it was identified that a kind of protein applied to the pigment composition. It should be noted that all materials and pigments identified in this study are consistent with the materials applied in other murals of the Qajar-related buildings and architectures (in Iran).
Full-Text [PDF 3951 kb]   (159 Downloads)    
Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Conservation Science
Received: 2019/12/16 | Accepted: 2020/04/21 | Published: 2020/06/30 | ePublished: 2020/06/30

1. Alizadeh. S. Survey on ways of painting development in the first part of Qajar period, Negareh 7)22(, 2012, p 73-84. [in Persia].[علیزاده سیامک. بررسی و فن‏ شناسی تحول هنر نقاشی در دورۀ اول قاجاری،.فصلنامه علمی نگره 1391، 7(22)، ص 84 - 73.]
2. Shirazi. M and Mousavilar. M, Retrieval of identity in Qajar Era (case study: ceramics), Negareh 12)41(, 2017, p 17-29. [in Persian].[شیرازی ماه منیر، اشرف موسوی لر. بازیابی لایه‏های هویتی در هنر دوره قاجار مطالعه موردی روی کاشی‏های دوره قاجار، فصلنامه علمی نگره1396، 12(41)، 29 - 17.]
3. Gholamzade Kalaei. A and Samanian. K, Structural analysis of materials and techniques of plinth ornaments of Safavid Era: A case study of Shah Abbas II mausoleum in Qom, journal of visual and applied arts 2018, 10)20(, p 117-131 [in Persian].[غلام‌زاده کلایی احمد، کورس سامانیان. تحلیل ساختاری مواد و تکنیک به‌کاررفته در تزیینات ازارۀ سنگی دورۀ صفوی (نمونه مطالعاتی بقعه شاه‌عباس ثانی قم)، فصلنامه علمی-پژوهشی نامه هنرهای تجسمی و کاربردی 1396، 20: 131 - 117.]
4. Abbasi. J, Bahadori. R, Bozorgmehr. M.A, Beheshti. I and Bahrololoumi, F, Identification of materials and pigments used in mural painting of Rahim Abad historic garden & mansion in Birjand, journal of research on Archaeometry, volume 2(2) 2017, p 63-76. [in Persian].10.29252/jra.2.2.63 [عباسی جواد، بهادری رؤیا، بزرگمهر محمدعلی، بهشتی سید ایرج و بحرالعلومی فرانک. شناسایی مواد و رنگدانه‌های به‌کاررفته در نقاشی‏های دیواری مجموعه باغ و عمارت تاریخی رحیم‏آباد بیرجند، پژوهۀ باستان‏سنجی 1395، 2(2)، ص63 - 76.]
5. Ashrafi, A, Westernization in Iranian Architecture "The Impact of Different Societies on Iranian Architecture from the Beginning to Contemporary", Isfahan: Goftemane Andishe publication, 2016. [in Persian].[اشرفی علیرضا. فرنگی سازی در معماری ایرانی: تأثیر جوامع مختلف بر معماری ایران از آغاز تا معاصر، اصفهان1395، گفتمان اندیشه.]
6. Memarian. GH, Static Iranian Architecture, first volume, Tehran: Naghmeh NoAndish publication, 2013. [in Persian].[معماریان غلامحسین. معماری ایرانی نیارش. جلد اول، تهران: انتشارات نغمه نواندیش، 1392.]
7. Pirnia. M.K, Persian architecture, Edited by Gholam Hossein Memarian, Tehran: Soroush Danesh publication 2013 [in Persian].[پیرنیا محمد کریم. معماری ایرانی. تهران: سروش دانش؛ 1392.]
8. Soltan Seyyed Rezakhan, Dar-al-saltaneh map of Isfahan, municipality of Isfahan, Isfahan City Renovation and improvements Organization 2013. [in Persian].[سلطان سید رضاخان. نقشۀ دارالسلطنۀ اصفهان، شهرداری اصفهان. سازمان نوسازی و بهسازی شهر اصفهان؛ 1392.]
9. Aerial map of Isfahan, municipality of Isfahan, Isfahan City Renovation and improvements Organization, Edited by authors 2016. [in Persian].[نقشه هوایی اصفهان. شهرداری اصفهان. سازمان نوسازی و بهسازی شهر اصفهان. تنظیم و ویرایش: نگارندگان؛ 1395.]
10. Basiri, S, The comparative study of the constructional features of gilding decoration of Qajar period in Isfahan case study: the houses of Qodsiyye, Shahshahan and Haghighi, Negarineh Islamic Art, scientific research quarterly, , 2014, 2, p 52-69.[in Persian].[بصیری، سمیه. مطالعۀ تطبیقی ویژگی‏های ساختاری تزیینات طلاکاری دورۀ قاجار در اصفهان نمونه موردی: خانه‏های قدسیه، شهشهان و حقیقی، فصلنامه علمی نگارینه هنر اسلامی 1393، 1(2)، 69 - 52.]
11. Bahadori. R, Tazimi. D and jahangardi. S, Identification on mural painting of Borojerdiha house in Kashan, Proceedings of the First symposium on Materials Science and conservation of Cultural and Historical artefacts, Tehran: research institute of cultural heritage & tourism, 2012, p 143-149 [in Persian].[بهادری، رؤیا، دانیال تعظیمی، و سمیه جهانگردی. بررسی و شناسایی مواد و رنگدانه‌های به‌کاررفته در نقاشی‏های دیواری خانه بروجردی‏های کاشان، مجموعه مقالات نخستین همایش علم مواد و حفاظت آثار فرهنگی و تاریخی 1391، تهران، پژوهشگاه میراث فرهنگی و گردشگری. ص 143 - 149.]
12. Rahmani. Gh and Hosseini. M, Intention and its relation with colors used in royal Qajar mural painting, journal of research on Archaeometry, 2019, year 5(1), p 31-41[in Persian].10.29252/jra.5.1.31 [رحمانی، غلامرضا و مهدی حسینی. نیت‏مندی و ارتباط آن بارنگ‌های به‌کاررفته در دیوارنگاره‏های درباری قاجار، پژوهۀ باستان‏سنجی1398، 5(1)، 41 - 31.]
13. Nikoei. Z and Samanian. K. Identification of green and red pigments used at mural painting of the Zandieh in Shiraz by instrumental methods, Journal of color science and technology, 2020, 14(1), p 49-61 [in Persian].[نیکویی، زهرا و کورس سامانیان. شناسایی رنگدانه‌های سبز و قرمز دیوارنگاره‏های دوره زند در شیراز با روش دستگاهی، نشریه علمی پژوهشی علوم و فناوری رنگ 1398، 14(1)، ص 61-49.]
14. Chaghamirzaye. R. Technology and pathology and conservation plan for mural paintings in Panj-Dari room of Sarem-all-dowleh house of Kermanshah, M.A Thesis, Conservation of historical & cultural objects, University of Art, Tehran. 2017. [in Persian].[چقامیرزایی، رؤیا. فن‏ شناسی، آسیب ‏شناسی و ارائه راهکار حفاظتی برای نقاشی‏های دیواری اتاق پنج‌دری در خانۀ صارم‏الدوله کرمانشاه، پايان‏نامه كارشناسي ارشد، رشته مرمت اشیاء فرهنگی و تاریخی، دانشگاه هنر تهران 1395.]
15. Ghavami. F. Technical study of colorful paintings depicted in Ghatarbandies of eastern room of Shah-Neshin in Haghighi house in Isfahan, Master،s Thesis, Conservation of historical & cultural objects, Art University of Tehran 2015. [in Persian].[قوامی، فرشته. فن‏شناسی نقاشی‏های رنگی در قطار بندی‌های اتاق شرقی شاه‏نشین در خانه حقیقی اصفهان، پایان‏نامه کارشناسی ارشد مرمت اشیاء تاریخی و فرهنگی، دانشگاه هنر تهران 1393.]
16. Mardani, E. Conservation and Restoration of some part of the wall painting in the house of Akhavan-e-Haghighi in Isfahan, Bachelor Thesis, Conservation of historical & cultural objects, University of Art, Isfahan, 2007. [in Persian].[مردانی، الهه. حفظ و مرمت جزئی از دیوارنگارۀ خانۀ اخوان حقیقی اصفهان، پایان‏نامۀ کارشناسی مرمت آثار تاریخی، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان 1386.]
17. Vatandoost, R and Bahadori, R. Identification of Compounds Used in a Wall Painting by Using Fourer-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Proceedings of the Conservation of Historical Cultural Center, Tehran, 1998, p 98-101. [in Persian].[وطن‏دوست، رسول و رؤیا بهادری. شناسایی اجزاء یک نقاشی دیواری به روش طیف‏سنجی زیر قرمز تبدیل فوریه FTIR. مجموعه مقالات پژوهشکده حفاظت و مرمت آثار تاریخی-فرهنگی (1)، تهران: پژوهشکده حفاظت و مرمت آثار تاریخی و فرهنگی 1377، 101- 98.]
18. Ahmadi S, Shokouhi F, Oliaiy P, Lamehi-Rachti M, Rahighi J. Characterisation of the Wall Painting Pigments of Baghcheh Joogh Castle by PIXE. International Journal of PIXE. 2005;15(03n04):345-50.
19. Esmailian. F. Syrvey of Monochrome Mural Paintings Techniques of Bekhradys House, M.A Thesis, Conservation of historical & cultural objects, University of Art, Tehran; 2014. [in Persian].[اسماعیلیان، فاطمه. فن‏شناسی نقاشی‏های دیواری تک‌فام شاه‏نشین خانۀ بخردی اصفهان، پایان‏نامه کارشناسی‏ارشد مرمت و احیای بافت‏های تاریخی، دانشگاه هنر تهران 1392.]
20. Samanian K, Abbasi Z, Kaldareh Ai. Archaeometrical Study of the Used Materials in Qajar Easel Painting Using XRD, XRF, PLM And FTIR Techniques: A Case Study Of" Egyptian Girl" Tablout. Mediterranean Archaeology & Archaeometry. 2013 Jul 1;13(2).
21. Firooznia. A and Samanian. K. Ingredients and techniques of an Qajar oil painting, Ganjine-ye asnad, historical research & archiveal studies quarterly, 2018, 28(1), p 152-174 [in Persian].[فیروزنیا، افسانه و کورس سامانیان. شناسایی مواد و رنگدانه‌های به‌کاررفته در تابلوی رنگ‏روغن دوره قاجار منسوب به ابوالقاسم اصفهانی. فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی گنجینه اسناد 1397، 28(1)، ص 174-152.]
22. Pakzad Z. Color Structure in the Persian Painting. Rev. Eur. Stud.. 2017;9:1.
23. Stuart, B. Analytical techniques in materials conservation, [Translate by Bagherzadeh Kasiri M.], Tabriz Islamic Art University Publications. 2014 [in Persian].[استوارت، باربارا. روش‏های تجزیۀ مواد در مرمت و حفاظت آثار تاریخی، ترجمۀ مسعود باقر زاده کثیری، تبریز: دانشگاه هنر اسلامی 1393.]
24. Siddall R. Mineral pigments in archaeology: their analysis and the range of available materials. Minerals. 2018 May;8(5):201.
25. Fitzhugh EW. Red lead and minium. InArtists' pigments; A handbook of their history and characteristics 1986 (Vol. 1, pp. 109-139).
26. Eastaugh N, Walsh V, Chaplin T, Siddall R. Pigment compendium: a dictionary of historical pigments. Routledge; 2007 Mar 30.
27. McBride C. A pigment particle & fiber atlas for paper conservators.Graph ICS Conservation laboratory. Getty trust postgraduate fellow 2002. P 1-86.
28. Zagora J. SEM-EDX pigment analysis and multi-analytical study of the ground and paint layers of Francesco Fedrigazzi's painting from Kostanje. InCeROArt. Conservation, exposition, Restauration d'Objets d'Art 2013 May 12 (No. EGG 3). Association CeROArt asbl.
29. Erhardt D. Paints based on drying oil media. Painted Wood: History and Conservation, The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles. 1998 Aug 27:17-32.
30. Holakooei P, Karimy AH. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry on the characterization of the Persian pigments used in the pre-seventeenth century wall paintings of Masjid-i Jāme of Abarqū, central Iran. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2015 Jan 5;134:419-27.
31. Ospitali F, Bersani D, Di Lonardo G, Lottici PP. 'Green earths': vibrational and elemental characterization of glauconites, celadonites and historical pigments. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: An International Journal for Original Work in all Aspects of Raman Spectroscopy, Including Higher Order Processes, and also Brillouin and Rayleigh Scattering. 2008 Aug;39(8):1066-73.
32. Feller RL. Artist's pigments: a handbook of their history and characteristics. Vol. 1. 1986.
33. Gražėnaitė E, Kiuberis J, Beganskienė A, Senvaitienė J, Kareiva A. XRD and FTIR characterisation of historical green pigments and their lead-based glazes. Chemija. 2014 Dec 1;25(4):199-205.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2021 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Research on Archaeometry

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb