Analyzing the contribution of environmental factors to spatial distribution of Chalcolithic settlements in southern part of the cultural region of Halil River (Kahnuj Qaleh Ganj and Southern Rudbar plains) - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
year 5, Issue 2 (2019)                   JRA 2019, 5(2): 71-90 | Back to browse issues page

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Riahiyan Gohorti R, Naqshineh A S, Saeidi Harsini M R. Analyzing the contribution of environmental factors to spatial distribution of Chalcolithic settlements in southern part of the cultural region of Halil River (Kahnuj, Qaleh Ganj, and Southern Rudbar plains). JRA. 2019; 5 (2) :71-90
1- Ph.D Candidate of Archaeology prehistoric, Islamic Azad University
2- Assistant Professor of Archaeology, University of Shahid Beheshti ,
3- Associate Professor of The Organization for Researching and Composing University textbooks in the Humanities (Samt)
Abstract:   (960 Views)
Environmental factors, have played a decisive role in shaping and spatial distribution of human settlements. The study of human-environment interactions is one of the major approaches in modern archeology. Understanding human-environment relationships become more important in studying multiple geographic areas. Halil River with the length of 363 km is one of the rivers of Hamun-e Jaz Murian sub-catchment, with a northwest-southeast orientation, which flows in political division of Kerman Province, and around main and subsidiary branches of the river, about 26426 square km, various settlements have been formed in different historical-cultural periods including prehistoric periods which is referred to as “cultural region of Halil River” in archaeological circles. The cultural area of the river is also one of the geographical areas with three climates of "mountainous and temperate", "warm" and "warm and dry and this climatic multiplicity has led to specific patterns in the location and development of permanent and temporary settlements. This is while, Prehistoric archaeological studies in this area, are more focused on the Bronze Age settlements and the contribution of Chalcolithic settlements to such studies is very small. Accordingly, the study of the role of environmental factors in the spatial distribution, viability, and shaping of settlements of the Chalcolithic Age plays an important role in understanding pre-historic cultures before entering the Bronze Age. Because some of the backgrounds of the formation of the Bronze Age cultures can be traced back to the Chalcolithic age. The main question is, what is the impact and role of environmental factors on the spatial distribution of copper and rock settlements in the southern part of Halil river basin? The research method is descriptive-analytical and is based on data from archaeological studies. Environmental factors such as altitude, direction and extent of land slope, water resources, land structure and land use associated with 69 copper-rock deployments were analyzed using GIS. Out of  these deployments, 53 cases are in Rudbar plain, 5 cases are in Kahnuj plain, and 10 cases are in Qale Ganj plain. Of settlements, 49 cases are sites: 39 cases in Rudbar plain, 2 cases in Kahnuj plain, and 7 cases in Qaleh Ganj plain; the other 20 cases are hills: 14 cases in Rudbar plain, 3 cases in Kahnuj plain, and 3 cases in Qaleh Ganj plain. Most of these settlements are located in the plain at the bank of Halil River (Kahnuj and Rudbar) and its subsidiary branches (Rudbar and Qaleh Ganj) as well as intermontane areas at the bank of the seasonal river ended in Jaz Murian wetland (Rudbar and Qaleh Ganj). Also 11 cases which are mostly related to Neo-Chalcolithic phase, possess cultural evidence such as ceramics which belong to Bronze Age, and located in Rudbar plain (7 cases) and Qaleh Ganj plain (4 cases). Based on the results, elevation and access to water resources have the most role in the location and shape of the settlements. Accordingly, the role of environmental factors in the tradition of migration and intra-regional relocation is also important, and the study of settlement distribution based on copper- rock chronology indicates an increase in population in this area.
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Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Archaeometry
Received: 2019/07/13 | Accepted: 2019/10/22 | Published: 2020/04/14 | ePublished: 2020/04/14

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