Investigation and Study of Glass Artifacts of the Sassanid Period; Case Study: Jahangir Dome and Gouriyeh Glasses in Ilam Province using Micro-PIXE Technique - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
year 5, Issue 2 (2019)                   JRA 2019, 5(2): 47-70 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Agha-Aligol D, Sodaei B, Khosravi L, Karimi M. Investigation and Study of Glass Artifacts of the Sassanid Period; Case Study: Jahangir Dome and Gouriyeh Glasses in Ilam Province using Micro-PIXE Technique. JRA. 2019; 5 (2) :47-70
1- Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute
2- Islamic Azad University OF Tehran Varamin Pishva Branch ,
3- Research Institute of Cultural Heritage & Tourism
4- Islamic Azad University OF Tehran Varamin Pishva Branch
Abstract:   (1879 Views)
Studying the elemental composition of glass objects provide a lot of information about the manufacturing technique, the determination of the raw materials and the pigments were used to create different colors. In this study, 19 samples of glass objects obtained from the archaeological site of Jahangir Dome and Gouriyeh hill were analyzed by the micro-PIXE technique to measure the constituent elements. The Jahangir Dome and Gouriyeh hill are located 50 km northwest of Ilam on either side of the Kangir River. These sites excavated in three seasons by Leyla Khosravi from 2015 to 2017 and layers related to the Sassanid and the Early Islamic periods have been identified.  In the layers of the Sassanid period a considerable amount of glass has been recovered that no comprehensive research has been done on them so far.  The main purpose of this article is to study the glass industry of the Sassanid period and evaluate the raw materials were used in the manufacture of glass artifacts by micro-PIXE technique that followed by questions about the elemental composition of the glasses, identifying and examining sources of silica and flux raw materials, colorant and decolorant agent. The most important questions raised in this reach are:1- What kind of flux materials have been used in the glassware manufacturing process? 2- The colorant and decolorant materials used in the manufacturing process are deliberately added to the bath or are due to the iron oxide and manganese oxide existing in silica raw materials? The micro-PIXE analysis was performed with microprobe system manufactured by Oxford Instruments using the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerators at the Nuclear Science & Technology Research Institute (NSTRI) in Iran. The samples were analyzed in a vacuum chamber using a beam of 2.5MeV protons focused to a diameter less than 10 μm. The beam current was in the range of 30 to 50 pA. Characteristic X-rays were detected using a Si(Li) detector with an active area of 60 mm2 positioned at an angle of 135◦ relative to the incident beam direction and with an energy resolution of 150 eV for Fe-Kα.
The results of elemental composition show, the weight percentages of SiO2 (60-71wt.%), Na2O (11-20wt.%) and CaO (4-8wt.%) have the highest proportion of elemental composition in the samples. Also, the weight percentage of MgO (3-6 wt.%) and K2O (2-5 wt.%) in the analyzed glasses are greater than 1.5wt.%. Therefore, it can be concluded that the glass artifacts of these sites are silica-soda-lime glasses type, which is used the plant ashes as a flux.  Furthermore, wide variations in the weight percentage of SiO2, Na2O, K2O and MgO indicate that silica and flux raw materials obtained from various sources. The comparison of these data by the literature data shows the raw materials used in these sites are different from those were used in glasses excavated in Sassanid sites in Iraq. In addition, the elemental composition of these samples show that Fe2O3 and Cu2O are the colorant agents and MnO has been used as a decolorant element in the samples. However, in Jahangir Dome, these oxides were used unintentionally, but in the Gouriyeh,  MnO is added deliberately to the bath.
Full-Text [PDF 1808 kb]   (380 Downloads)    
Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Archaeometry
Received: 2019/08/31 | Accepted: 2019/12/6 | Published: 2019/12/30 | ePublished: 2019/12/30

1. Shishegar A. Iranian glass. Tehran: Cultural Heritage of Tehran province, 1992. [in Persian] [شیشه‌گر آرمان. شیشه ایرانی. چاپ اول، تهران: میراث فرهنگی استان تهران، 1371.]
2. Emami M, Pakgohar S. Glass Wires from Chogha Zabnbil Preliminary Glass Making Evidence in Iran in the Early 2rd Millennium BC. J Resear Archaeom 2017; 3: 1-15. [in Persian] [] [امامی محمدامین، پاک‌گوهر سجاد. مفتول‌های شیشه‌ای چغازنبیل، اولین نشانه‌های شیشه‌گری ایران در هزاره دوم پیش از میلاد. پژوهه باستان‏سنجی 1396؛ 3: 1-15.] [DOI:10.29252/jra.3.1.1]
3. Rasmussen SC. Origins of glass: myth and known history. In: How Glass Changed the World. Springer, 2012, pp. 11-19. [] [DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-28183-9_2]
4. Lauwers V, Degryse P, Waelkens M. Evidence for Anatolian glassworking in Antiquity: the case of Sagalassos (Southwestern Turkey). J Glass Stud 2007; 39-46.
5. Deghat A. Scientific Analysis of the Damages of the Choghazanbil temple glass and protective design. Art University of Isfahan, 2000. [in Persian] [دقت اشرف. تحلیل علمی آسیب‌های شیشه‌ی معبد چغازنبیل و طرح حفاظتی آن. پایان‌نامه‌ی کارشناسی ارشد مرمت اشیاء فرهنگی و تاریخی، دانشکده مرمت، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، 1378.]
6. Heinrich E. Tchoga Zanbil (Dur-Untash). Volume II. Temenos, Temples, Palais, Tombes.(Mémoires de la Délégation Archéologique en Iran, Tome XL, Mission de Susiane).
7. Porzarghan V. Conservation and Restoration of historical glasses. J Spec Knowl Restor Cult Herit 2010; 5: 32-42. [in Persian] [پورزرقان وحید. حفاظت و مرمت شیشه‌های تاریخی. دو فصلنامه تخصصی دانش مرمت و میراث فرهنگی 1388؛ 5: 32-42.]
8. Fukai S. Persian glass. Weatherhill, 1977.
9. Ghaeini F. The glassware and ceramic museum of Iran. Tehran: Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran, 2004. [in Persian] [قائینی فرزانه. موزه آبگینه و سفال‌های ایرانی. تهران: سازمان میراث فرهنگی، پژوهشگاه معاونت فرهنگی و آموزش، 1383.]
10. Henderson J. The glass. Sci Archaeol Mater An Investig Inorg Mater 2000; 60.
11. Abasian M. Fundamentals of physical Chemistry of non-metal minerals: productionof ceramics, refractory matreials, glass, plaster. Tehran: Javdan kherad, 1991. [in Persian] [عباسیان میر محمد. مبانی شیمی فیزیک مواد کانی غیرفلزی: تهیه و تولید سرامیک‌ها، مواد نسوز، شیشه، گچ، آهک. تهران: جاودان خرد، 1370.]
12. Henderson J. Ancient glass: an interdisciplinary exploration. Cambridge University Press, 2013. []
13. Agha-Aligol D, Jafarizadeh M, Moradi M. Micro-PIXE: A Powerful Technique in Measurement and Determination of Raw Materials of Glass artifacts of Parthian period From Shaur (Susa). J Res Archaeom 2018; 4: 47-65. [in Persian] [] [آقا‏‏علی‏گل داود، جعفری‏زاده مسلم، مرادی محمود. میکروپیکسی: روشی توانمند در بررسی و تعیین مواد اولیه مصنوعات شیشه‌ای دوره اشکانی کاخ شائور (شوش). پژوهه باستان‌سنجی 1397، 4: 47-65.] [DOI:10.29252/jra.4.1.47]
14. Khosravi L. Archaeological excavation report of Gonbad Jahangir and Goriyeh. Tehran, 2016. [in Persian] [خسروی لیلا. گزارش کاوش‌های باستان‌شناسی محوطه باستانی گنبد جهانگیر و گوریه. تهران: آرشیو پژوهشکده باستان‌شناسی، منتشرنشده، 1395.]
15. Caley ER. Analysis of ancient glasses 1790-1957; A comprehensive and critical survey.
16. Rehren T, Connolly P, Schibille N, et al. Changes in glass consumption in Pergamon (Turkey) from Hellenistic to late Byzantine and Islamic times. J Archaeol Sci 2015; 55: 266-279. [] [DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2014.12.025]
17. Rehren T. Aspects of the production of cobalt‐blue glass in Egypt. Archaeometry 2001; 43: 483-489. [] [DOI:10.1111/1475-4754.00031]
18. Davison S. Conservation and restoration of glass, Butterworth.
19. Simpson SJ. Sasanian glass: an overview. Neighb successors Rome Tradit Glas Prod use Eur Middle East later 1st Millenn AD 2014; 200-231. [] [DOI:10.2307/j.ctvh1dq24.24]
20. Shortland AJ, Tite MS, Ewart I. Ancient exploitation and use of cobalt alums from the Western Oases of Egypt. Archaeometry 2006; 48: 153-168. [] [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2006.00248.x]
21. Mirti P, Pace M, Negro Ponzi M, et al. ICP-MS Analysis of Glass Fragments of Parthian And Sasanian Epoch from Seleucia and Veh Ardaš?R (Central Iraq)*. Archaeometry 2008; 50: 429-450. [] [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2007.00344.x]
22. Brill RH, Stapleton CP. Chemical analyses of early glasses: volume 3: the years 2000 2011, reports, and essays. 1999.
23. Koob SP, Van Giffen NAR, Kunicki-Goldfinger JJ, et al. Caring for glass collections: the importance of maintaining environmental controls. Stud Conserv 2018; 63: 146-150. [] [DOI:10.1080/00393630.2018.1492252]
24. Rezaei Farimani Z, Mousavi Kuhpar SM. An Investigation of Glassmaking Industry at Tal-I Malyan Based on PIXE analysis. J Resarch Archaeom 2017; 3: 47-63. [in Persian] [] [رضایی فریمانی زهرا، موسوی کوهپر سید مهدی. بررسی صنعت شیشه‌گری در تل ملیان استان فارس بر اساس آنالیز PIXE. پژوهه باستان‏سنجی 1396؛ 3: 47-63.] [DOI:10.29252/jra.3.1.47]
25. Salehvand N, Shishegar A, Jafarizadeh M, et al. Resarch on glass Tubes of L-Oventish-Nppirish Experimental and Studying by X-Ray fluorescence method. J Archaeol Res Iran 2017; 81: 87-104. [in Persian] [صالح‏وند نوید، شیشه‌گر آرمان، جعفری زاده مسلم، فیروزمندی شیره جینی بهمن. پژوهشی پیرامون لوله‌های شیشه‌ای درهای ال- اونتش- نپپیریش آزمایش و مطالعه‌ی آن‌ها با روش فلورسانس پرتو مجهول. پژوهش‌های باستان‌شناسی ایران 1396؛ 87: 87- 104.]
26. Agha-Aligo D, Jafariezadeh M, Rahbar M, et al. Application of micro-PIXE method for elemental analysis of discovered glass beads from Saleh Davood tombs of Khuzestan: Evidence of trade of glass artifacts in the Parthian period. J Res Archaeom 2019; 5(1):143-166. [in Persian] [] [آقاعلی‏گل داود، جعفری‏زاده مسلم، رهبر مهدی، مرادی محمود. کاربرد روش میکروپیکسی جهت آنالیز عنصری مهره‌های شیشه‌ای. مکشوفه از آرامگاه‌های صالح داود خوزستان: شواهدی از تجارت مصنوعات در دوره اشکانی. پژوهه باستان‌سنجی 1398، 5(1): 143-166.] [DOI:10.29252/jra.5.1.143]
27. Khosravi L, Ghorbani E. Investigation of geology, hydrology, geomorphology, motorcycles and morphotections Jahangir site on the edge of kangar river in Ivan city of Ilam Province. J Iran Quat 2019; 3(1): 75-93. [in Persian] [خسروی لیلا، قربانی الهام. بررسی زمین‌شناسی، هیدورلوژی، ژئومورفولوژی و سایر موتکنیک و مورفوتکتونیک پهنه باستانی جهانگیر در حاشیه رود کنگیر شهرستان ایوان استان ایلام. فصلنامه کواترنری ایران 1397؛ 3 (1): 75-93.]
28. Vandenberg L. Archeological excavation in Poshtkuh Lorestan. Tehran: Ministry of Culture and Art Publications, 1971. [in Persian] [واندنبرگ لوئی. کاوش‌های باستان‌شناسی در پشتکوه لرستان، باستان‌شناسی و هنر ایران. تهران: انتشارات وزارت فرهنگ و هنر،1350.]
29. Astark F. A Trip to Alamut, Lorestan and Ilam. (Translated by: Saki A.M.), Tehran: Scientific- Culture, 1980. [in Persian] [استارک مادلین فریا. سفری به دیار الموت، لرستان و ایلام. ترجمه: ساکی علی محمد، تهران، علمی/ فرهنگی، 1358.]
30. Afshar Sistani A. Ilam and Ancient Civilization. Tehran: Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance Publications, 1994. [in Persian] [افشار سیستانی ایرج. ایلام و تمدن دیرینه آن. تهران: انتشارات وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی، 1372.]
31. Cristensen A. Iran in the Sassanid period. (Translated by: Yasami Gh.R.). Tehran: Amirkabir publications, 1988. [in Persian] [کریستن سن آرتور. ایران در زمان ساسانیان. ترجمه: یاسمی غلامرضا رشید، انتشارات امیرکبیر، تهران، 1367.]
32. Johansson SAE, Campbell JL, Malmqvist KG. Particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE). John Wiley & Sons, 1995.
33. Farshi Jalali F. Characterization of obsidian artifacts of Nader Teppe of Aslanduz by PIXE. Tehran University, 2005. [in Persian] [فرشی جلالی فاطمه. منشایابی دست‌ساخته‌های ابسیدینی نادر تپه اصلاندوز بر اساس روش PIXE. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی‏ارشد دانشگاه تهران، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، 1384.]
34. Lamehi- Rashti M, Farshi Jalali F, Agha-aligol D, et al. Characterization of Iranian obsidian artifacts by PIXE and multivariate statistical analysis. J Archaeol 2015; 3: 25-32. [in Persian] [لامعی رشتی محمد، فرشی جلالی فاطمه، آقا علی گل داود، اولیائی پروین، بحرالعلومی فرانک، شکوهی فرح. تعیین منشأ ابسیدین‏های به‌دست‌آمده از نادر تپه اصلاندوز با استفاده از روش پیکسی، دو فصلنامه تخصصی باستان‌شناسی و مطالعات میان‌رشته‌ای 1385؛3: 32-25.]
35. Sayre E V, Smith RW. Compositional categories of ancient glass. Science (80- ) 1961; 133: 1824-1826. [] [DOI:10.1126/science.133.3467.1824]
36. Mirti P, Pace M, Malandrino M, et al. Sasanian glass from Veh Ardašīr: new evidences by ICP-MS analysis. J Archaeol Sci 2009; 36: 1061-1069. [] [DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2008.12.008]
37. Rehren T, Freestone IC. Ancient glass: from kaleidoscope to crystal ball. J Archaeol Sci 2015; 56: 233-241. [] [DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2015.02.021]
38. Bugoi R, Alexandrescu C-G, Panaite A. Chemical composition characterization of ancient glass finds from Troesmis-Turcoaia, Romania. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 2018; 10: 571-586. [] [DOI:10.1007/s12520-016-0372-6]
39. Ares JDJ, Calderón NF, López IM, et al. Islamic soda-ash glasses in the Christian kingdoms of Asturias and León (Spain). J Archaeol Sci Reports 2018; 22: 257-263. [] [DOI:10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.09.026]
40. Neri E, Schibille N, Pellegrino M, et al. A Byzantine connection: Eastern Mediterranean glasses in medieval Bari. J Cult Herit 2019; 38: 253-260. [] [DOI:10.1016/j.culher.2018.11.009]
41. Henderson J, McLoughlin SD, McPhail DS. Radical changes in Islamic glass technology: evidence for conservatism and experimentation with new glass recipes from early and middle Islamic Raqqa, Syria*. Archaeometry 2004; 46: 439-468. [] [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2004.00167.x]
42. Siu I, Henderson J, Canav-Özgümüş Ü, et al. An archaeological and chemical investigation of 11th-12th centuries AD glasses from Zeyrek Camii (the Pantokrator church) in Byzantine Constantinople. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 2019; 11: 2637-2647. [] [DOI:10.1007/s12520-018-0700-0]
43. Freestone IC, Ponting M, Hughes MJ. The origins of Byzantine glass from Maroni Petrera, Cyprus. Archaeometry 2002; 44: 257-272. [] [DOI:10.1111/1475-4754.t01-1-00058]
44. Freestone IC, Jackson-Tal RE, Taxel I, et al. Glass production at an early Islamic workshop in Tel Aviv. J Archaeol Sci 2015; 62: 45-54. [] [DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2015.07.003]
45. Vataj E, Hobdari E, Röhrs S, et al. Analytical characterization of glass tesserae from mosaics of early Christian basilicas in Albania. Appl Phys A 2017; 123: 76. [] [DOI:10.1007/s00339-016-0661-z]
46. Schibille N, Sterrett-Krause A, Freestone IC. Glass groups, glass supply and recycling in late Roman Carthage. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 2017; 9: 1223-1241. [] [DOI:10.1007/s12520-016-0316-1]
47. Jackson CM, Cottam S. 'A green thought in a green shade'; Compositional and typological observations concerning the production of emerald green glass vessels in the 1st century AD. J Archaeol Sci 2015; 61: 139-148. [] [DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2015.05.004]
48. Gliozzo E, Lepri B, Saguì L, et al. Colourless glass from the Palatine and Esquiline hills in Rome (Italy). New data on antimony-and manganese-decoloured glass in the Roman period. Archaeol Anthropol Sci 2017; 9: 165-180. [] [DOI:10.1007/s12520-015-0264-1]
49. Babalola AB, Dussubieux L, McIntosh SK, et al. Chemical analysis of glass beads from Igbo Olokun, Ile-Ife (SW Nigeria): New light on raw materials, production, and interregional interactions. J Archaeol Sci 2018; 90: 92-105. [] [DOI:10.1016/j.jas.2017.12.005]
50. Agha-Aligol D, Oliaiy P, Mohsenian M, et al. Provenance study of ancient Iranian luster pottery using PIXE multivariate statistical analysis. J Cult Herit 2009; 10: 487-492. [] [DOI:10.1016/j.culher.2009.01.003]
51. Agha‐Aligol D, Lamehi‐Rachti M, Oliaiy P, et al. Characterization of Iranian obsidian artifacts by PIXE and multivariate statistical analysis. Geoarchaeology 2015; 30: 261-270. [] [DOI:10.1002/gea.21509]
52. Renda V, Nardo VM, Anastasio G, et al. A multivariate statistical approach of X-ray fluorescence characterization of a large collection of reverse glass paintings. Spectrochim Acta Part B At Spectrosc 2019; 159: 105655. [] [DOI:10.1016/j.sab.2019.105655]
53. Statistics IBMS. 22. SPSS for Windows, release 22.0.
54. Freestone IC, Degryse P, Lankton J, et al. HIMT, glass composition and commodity branding in the primary glass industry. Things that Travel Mediterr Glas first Millenn CE UCL Press London 2018; 159-190. [] [DOI:10.2307/j.ctt21c4tb3.14]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2021 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Journal of Research on Archaeometry

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb