Structural Characterization of Steatite Vessels of Shadyakh by XRF XRD and SEM Methods - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
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Using the stones to make tools and vessels go back to Paleolithic and Neolithic periods. Stones so called soft stones beside the alabaster are one of the most famous stones that used to producing vessel in Near East and today they are current in different utilize. Soft stone vessels reach to highest level of flourishing during the Bronze Age and its geographical exchange area Stretch from India in east to Syria in west. Iran as one of the most important places of this kind of stones was a potentially center in this trade and archaeological sites such as Tape Yahya and Konar Sandal in Kerman Province are some of the most famous sites in making and exporting this objects. Although soft stone vessel making continued during historical and Islamic but this industry neglected by researchers and archaeologist. In addition, until now morphological and artistic reports and archaeometry studies focused on Bronze Age vessels. During six seasons archaeological excavations at an Islamic Archaeological site called Shadyakh near to modern city of Neyshabur, which its date goes back to Early and middle Islamic period, several pieces of soft stone vessels recovered. No evidence of workshop or crafting are reported and according to geological report around this region no outcrop of soft stone seen, but no archaeometric study conducted on samples to find the possible sources. Aim of this researches gain acknowledges the Structural Characterization of Soft stone vessels recovered from this Site. Before this research Kohl and his collogues in 1979 carried on large amount of Bronze Age archaeological samples from Middle East. They found several main groups and a mine around Mashhad recognized. At this research in total 16 samples from different seasons of archaeological excavations of Shadyakh collected analyses by XRD, 4 sample analyzed by XRF and 2 samples by SEM. These analyzed in Kansaran Binaloud institute, Hamedan University and Islamic Azad University of Neyshabur. XRD results clustered and show two main groups, XRF instrument detect 21 trace elements[1] and 11 chimical compound[2]. The raw data studied by statistic software excel. At this study overlap graph prepared according to finding difference or similarity between samples. Result show high similarity among samples. SEM and XRD show that main compounds are Talc, Steatite, Soapstone, Clinochlore, Graftonite, Dolomite, Britholite and Clinochlore. At Final, all the samples are talc and steatite and no samples are chlorite.  These compounds are common in samples; therefore, Shadyakh samples come from one geological zone.
[1] consist of Cl, Ba, Sr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, V, Ce, La, W, Zr, Y, Rb, Co, As, U, Th, Mo, Ga
[2] consist of S, P2O5, MnO, Tio2, MgO, K2O, Na2O, CaO, Fe2O3, Al2O3, Sio2
Keywords: soft stone, Shadyakh, XRD, XRF, SEM.
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Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Archaeometry
Received: 2018/05/21 | Accepted: 2018/11/22

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