This paper presents the results of the Identifying the binder and pigments used in the mural paintings in RahimAbad Historic Garden and Mansion in Birjand. Birjand was one of the most important governmental strategic cities in Qajar era (1789–1925A.D) and an important branch area of ancient Silk Road which connected India to Europe. Though many monuments, especially historical gardens remained in Birjand. RahimAbad Historic Garden and Mansion was the resident of Qaenat ruler to consider politics, businesses and accommodating foreign guests. The most important part in the Architectural decoration of RahimAbad Historic Garden and Mansion is mirror-encrusted decorations, stucco and mural paintings. Due to diversity in building decorations and multiplicity of constructing periods in RahimAbad Historic Garden and Mansion, identification of pigments used in mural paintings is a great evidential assistance in extracting chronological information. scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX)، Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Polarized light microscopy (PLM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and handheld X-Ray Florescence (micro-XRF) were used for the characterization of the compound and structure of the paint layers of samples taken from mural paintings. AccordThis paper presents the results of the identification of the binder and pigments used in the mural paintings in Rahim Abad Historic Garden and Mansion in Birjand. Birjand was one of the most important governmental strategic cities in Qajar era (1789–1925 A.D.), and an important branch area of ancient Silk Road, which connected India to Europe. Many monuments, especially historical gardens have been remained in Birjand. Rahim Abad Historic Garden and Mansion is one of this gardens, which in the period of Amir Ismail Khan Shaukat Molk, was the location of Qaenat ruler to consider politics, businesses and accommodating foreign guests. The most important part in the Architectural decoration of Rahim Abad Historic Garden and Mansion is mirror-encrusted decorations, stucco and wall paintings. Due to diversity in building decorations and multiplicity of constructing periods in Rahim Abad Historic Garden and Mansion, identification of pigments and materials used in wall paintings is of a great evidential assistance in extracting chronological information. Wall painting is one of the Iran arts that based on the signs of old paint can be pursued to pre-history. One of the most important issues in the study of historical paintings, especially wall painting, is the identification of the nature of paintings used to decorate the walls. Pigments identification is also important not only from the perspective of archeology, but also in terms of the history of art and knowledge of degradation processes and the development of monument conservation strategies is also important. Scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX) ،Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Polarized light microscopy (PLM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and handheld X-Ray Florescence spectroscopy (micro-XRF) were used for the characterization of the compound and structure of the paint layers of samples taken from mural paintings. In fact, chemical and physical analysis, provide
s useful information from spectrum of pigments in a region and recognizing color preparation techniques and its application. Also before proceeding restoration, the accurate information from the chemical composition of materials used in object is required. According to the obtained results, mixture of gypsum and calcite as a substrate layer, red lead (Pb3O4), mixture of malachite (CuCO3.Cu(OH)2) and Prussian blue)Fe4(Fe[CN]6)3), ultramarine (Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4), and mixture of two metals, copper and zinc, as the pigments were used. Also, an adhesive like animal glue was that of common materials in Qajar period, as well as used to substrate color. Such pigments are further evidence that the mural painting of this monument are from the late Qajar. Oil was used as binder or varnish in this painting and there is in all of the samples. One of the interesting points of the materials used in the paintings was the application of a mixture of pigments to create colors with different tonalities. Another point is the use of imported pigments such as Prussian blue, along with other traditional pigments that were common in of that era. Also, the microscopic examination of golden color indicates the presence of chalcopyrite in this pigment. These compounds exist due to the corrosion of copper metal in golden color, and usually appears in golden colors obtained from two metals alloy, such as copper and zinc, by creating green color in a golden background.ing to the obtained results,mixture of gypsum and calcite as a preparatory layer, red lead (Pb3O4), mixture of malachite (CuCO3.Cu(OH)2) and Prussian blue ) Fe4(Fe[CN]6)3), ultramarine (Na8-10Al6Si6O24S2-4), and mixture of two metals, copper and zinc, as pigments were used. Also, an adhesive like animal glue was that of common materials in Qajar period, as well as used to substrate color. Such pigments are further evidence that the Mural Painting of this Monument are from the late Qajar. Oil was used as binder or varnish in this painting and there is in all of colors.
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