Identification the Structure of Colorants Used on the Late Bronze Age Ceramics of Eastern Lake Urmia Based on the Specimen from Kul Tepe Ajabshir - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
year 3, Issue 1 (2017)                   JRA 2017, 3(1): 17-27 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rastineh U A, B. Kasiri M, Ajorloo B, Ebrahimi Q. Identification the Structure of Colorants Used on the Late Bronze Age Ceramics of Eastern Lake Urmia Based on the Specimen from Kul Tepe, Ajabshir. JRA. 2017; 3 (1) :17-27
URL: http://jra-tabriziau.ir/article-1-51-en.html
1- M.Sc. in Archaeometry Tabriz Islamic Art University
2- Associate professor Tabriz Islamic Art University , m.kasiri@tabriziau.ac.ir
3- Associate professor Tabriz Islamic Art University
4- Ph.D. Candidate in Archaeology University of Mohaghegh Ardabili
Abstract:   (652 Views)
Although the pottery is found in a massive amount in archaeological discoveries, these materials are the most important materials for different orientations in studies on the ancient people. One aspects of the study on ancient potteries, is the investigation about the painting and different colorants used for decorating potteries in variety patterns with different colors. This study aims to explore the ancient people knowledge and their experiments on creation of color by making up dying materials that could be found close to their dwells. The present work represented an attempt to discern experimentally the base and chemical composition of colorants used as decorative elements on ancient ceramics. Thus, five pieces of late Bronze painted pottery of the eastern Lake Urmia Basin (from the archaeological site of Kul Tepe of Ajabshir) were singled out. First, to determine whether the paint came from organic or inorganic sources and also to identify the existing anions and cations the Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) technique was employed. The results demonstrated that the used coloring material has a mineral origin, where the sharp and strong peak at 465 cm-1 of the spectrums confirmed that the nature of coloring agents consists of iron oxides. Next, for elemental analysis and studying the chemical structure and composition of the colorants Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-Ray analysis (SEM-EDX) was used. SEM-EDX analysis result demonstrated the presence of iron and manganese (Mn) content alongside other component elements of the ceramic bodies including SiO2, MgO, Al2O3, and K2O, where the results tallied with the FT-IR spectrums. On the basis of elemental analysis results, it could be said that iron oxides are the main components of coloring agents, where they could produce a variety of colors, ranging from red to dark brown. Moreover, the presence of manganese make the paintings darker, and consequently, the brighter nature of paintings of sample no. 3 of Kul Tepe and sample no. 1 of Haftvan could be the consequence of the miserable amount of this element (1.77 and 0.49%, respectively). Finally, in order to confirm and complete the study, the specimens were subjected to X-Ray Diffraction analysis (XRD). This experiment also showed that the pigments used in ornamenting the sherds were mineral and comprised of Agite mineral (Ca(Fe, Mg)Si2O6), as the coloring mineral, alongside other minerals including sodic and calcite feldspars. The results obtained are in good agreements with the geology of the region, where the feldspars exist as the main minerals of both sites. Therefore experimental analysis on the pigments structure that used in the painting of Kul Tepe Urmia ware decorations in different ways and various laboratory equipments demonstrated that the pigments used in the pottery decorations have mineral source and presented various iron compounds in the paint of decorations. As result of this study, the presence of iron compounds in the soil of the Kul Tepe region, it could be said the ancient people did use the natural sources of colorants for decoration of their potteries. Moreover, the techniques and materials used for decoration of the potteries were the same at both side of the Lake Urmia.
Full-Text [PDF 1372 kb]   (287 Downloads)    
Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Archaeometry
Received: 2016/08/10 | Accepted: 2017/01/11 | Published: 2017/06/22 | ePublished: 2017/06/22

References
1. Franquelo ML, Duran A, Herrera LK, de Haro MCJ, Perez-Rodriguez JL. Comparison between micro-Raman and micro-FTIR spectroscopy techniques for the characterization of pigments from Southern Spain Cultural Heritage. J Molecular structure 2009;924:404–12.
2. Galván-Ruiz M, Velázquez-Castillo R, Pérez-Lara MA, Arjona JL, Baños L, Rodríguez-García ME. Chemical and physical characterization of stuccos from a mexican colonial building: El museo del calendario of queretaro. Archaeometry 2009;51:701–14. [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2008.00456.x]
3. Akyuz S, Akyuz T, Basaran S, Bolcal C, Gulec A. Analysis of ancient potteries using FT-IR, micro-Raman and EDXRF spectrometry. Vibrational spectroscopy 2008;48:276–80.
4. Mazzocchin GA, Vianello A, Minghelli S, Rudello D. Analysis of roman wall paintings from the Thermae of “Iulia Concordia”. Archaeometry 2010;52:644–55. [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2009.00501.x]
5. Talai H. Iran iron age. Fourth. Tehran: SAMT; 2013. [in Persian]
6. Harandi D, Taheri MH, Sardari A. Identification of pigments of Tal-e Mash Karim wall painting at the Chalcolithic site of Iran. Journal of Color Science and Technology 2015;9:187–97. [Original in Persian with English Abstract]
7. Hajizadeh K, Kazempour M, Abargouei H. Determine the culture of the second millennium BC, northwest Iran. Tehran: Samira; 2012. [in Persian]
8. Edwards MR. The pottery of Haftavan VIB (Urmia ware). Iran 1981;19:101–40.
9. Talai H. Iran Bronze Age. Fifth. Tehran: SAMT; 2012. [in Persian]
10. Stuart BH. Analytical techniques in materials conservation. John Wiley & Sons; 2007.
11. Casadio F, Chiari G, Simon S. Evaluation of binder/aggregate ratios in archaeological lime mortars with carbonate aggregate: A comparative assessment of chemical, mechanical and microscopic approaches. Archaeometry 2005;47:671–89. [DOI:10.1111/j.1475-4754.2005.00226.x]
12. Skoog D, Holler F, Nieman T. Principles of instrumental analysis. Philadelphia: Saunders College Pub; 1998.
13. Edreira MC, Feliu MJ, Fernández-Lorenzo C, Martın J. Roman wall paintings characterization from Cripta del Museo and Alcazaba in Mérida (Spain): chromatic, energy dispersive X-ray flurescence spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta 2001;434:331–45.
14. Mazzocchin GA, Agnoli F, Colpo I. Investigation of roman age pigments found on pottery fragments. Analytica Chimica Acta 2003;478:147–61.
15. Darchuk L, Tsybrii Z, Worobiec A, Vázquez C, Palacios OM, Stefaniak EA, et al. Argentinean prehistoric pigments’ study by combined SEM/EDX and molecular spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2010;75:1398–402.
16. Pavia D, Lampman G, Kriz G. Introduction to spectros copy. Cengage Learning; 2008.
17. Sharveh A, Anvshfr M. Glaze ceramic tiles. Third. Tehran: Gothenburg; 1999. [in Persian]
18. Emami M, Trettin R. Mineralogical and chemical investigations on the ceramic technology in Čoġā Zanbil,(Iran, 1250 BC). Periodico di Mineralogia Vol. 81, 3 dicembre 2012:359.
19. Hradil D, Grygar T, Hradilová J, Bezdička P. Clay and iron oxide pigments in the history of painting. Applied Clay Science 2003;22:223–36.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

Send email to the article author


© 2018 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Research on Archaeometry

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb