مروری بر استحصال و ویژگی‌های آلیاژهای مس – آرسنیکی در دنیای باستان - پژوهه باستان سنجی
سال 9، شماره 1 - ( 1402 )                   سال 9 شماره 1 صفحات 196-167 | برگشت به فهرست نسخه ها


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1- دانشکده حفاظت و مرمت، دانشگاه هنر اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران ، vahidpourzarghan@gmail.com
2- دانشکده حفاظت و مرمت، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران
چکیده:   (1798 مشاهده)
چکیده
بی‌شک یکی از مهمترین عناصر آلیاژکننده در دنیای باستان، عنصر آرسنیک است که نقش مهمی در دست‌ساخته‌های آلیاژهای اوایل عصر برنز را ایفا کرده‌است. آلیاژهای مس آرسنیکی و برنزهای آرسنیکی بی‌تردید به‌عنوان یک آلیاژ ساخته شده دست بشر از جایگاه ویژه‌ای در بین باستان‌شناسان و محققان فلزگری کهن، برخوردار است. آرسنیک به‌عنوان یک عنصر آلوده کننده و ناخالصی در تمام محیط به‌صورت پراکنده وجود دارد و فلزگر باستان با توجه به معایب و مضرات این عنصر برای اهداف آیینی و کاربردی، در تولید آلیاژ مس آرسنیکی استفاده کرده‌است. آرسنیک به‌عنوان یک عنصر چالش برانگیز در ساخت این آثار و همچنین ویژگی‌های خاصی که در سطح این آثار ایجاد می‌نماید، ظاهر می‌گردد که از مهمترین ویژگی این عنصر در ریخته‌گری، ایجاد جدایش معکوس در سطح این آثار است که ایجاد پدیده عرق آرسنیک در این آلیاژها می‌نماید. مواد معدنی اولیه مورد استفاده در ساخت این آلیاژها اولوینیت Cu2(AsO4)(OH) یا کیلنوتیس  Cu3(AsO4)(OH)، سولفور آرسنید آهن FeAsS و انارژیت Cu3AsS4 هستند که یا به‌صورت احیاء مستقیم یا به روش ذوب همزمان Co-Smelting مورد استحصال قرار گرفته‌اند، و یا اینکه آرسنیک به صورت آگاهانه از طریق Speiss، در تولید آلیاژ مس آرسنیکی در هزاره سوم مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. از استحصال این فلزات چندین محصول دیگر همراه با ذوب همزمان که شامل مات Matt، اشپایس Speiss و سرباره Slag است، ایجاد می‌شوند. هدف اصلی این مقاله با توجه به اهمیت موضوع آلیاژهای مس آرسنیکی در حوزه باستان شناسی و بررسی‌های فلزگری کهن، ارائه یک بررسی جامع در مورد روش‌های‌ استحصال، ویژگی‌های فیزیکی این آلیاژها و نقش آرسنیک و تاثیر آن به‌عنوان عنصر آلیاژی در شکل‌گیری سطح نقره‌ای و همچنین محصولات جانبی دیگر به‌عنوان موضوعی پراهمیت در بررسی آلیا‌ژهای اوایل عصر برنز، پرداخته‌شده‌است.
 
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یاداداشت علمی: مروری | موضوع مقاله: باستان سنجی
دریافت: 1401/5/24 | پذیرش: 1402/6/11 | انتشار: 1402/7/19 | انتشار الکترونیک: 1402/7/19

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