Evaluation of the Impact of Iron on Structural deterioration of Chrome Leather in Buried Conditions Based on Degradation Indices in FTIR Spectra - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
year 5, Issue 2 (2019)                   JRA 2019, 5(2): 91-104 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

1- Tabriz Islamic Art University , alireza.k.1989@gmail.com
2- Tabriz Islamic Art University
Abstract:   (3280 Views)
As leather production is an ancient industrial activity, historical leathers represent an important part of any society’s cultural materials. However, since leather is made from collagen fibers that are susceptible to many degradation factors, leather artifacts have been remained less often than other historical materials. Wide variety application of leather, imposes a particular set of conditions, which can bring about deterioration in the leather. In general, deterioration of leather is a chemical process in which there are a great number of contributing factors. Iron and its corrosion products are among the effective factors in the degradation of leathers, especially in buried specimens. This factor, in combination with the leather and tanning chemistry, leads to very diverse and complex degradation mechanisms. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of iron corrosion products on leather deterioration. Accordingly, a buried leather sample obtained from historic “Khosravi” Leather Factory, Tabriz Islamic Art University, was examined. Based on appearance, the leather was buried in the vicinity of the iron and its corrosion products. Different parts of leather show the possibility of penetration of different amounts of iron or its corrosion products. Structural evaluation of different parts of the leather and their deterioration was performed by spot test of iron (using potassium ferrocyanide), leather ash measurement, Micro x-ray fluorescence (µXRF), Ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and microscopic examination. FTIR spectra were also fitted to the Gaussian function. The results showed that this sample was tanned with chromium salts and, probably, lime was used for dehairing. Examination of leather showed that the amount of iron varied in different parts of leather. In other words, a part of the leather has been in direct contact with iron and, over time, corrosion products have penetrated the leather structure. This has led to differences in the amount of iron in different parts of leather. Structural changes in different parts of leather were investigated using degradation indices in FTIR spectra. The hydrolysis degree of the polypeptide chains can be semiquantified using the amide I/amide II band intensity ratio (IAI/ IAII), which is about 1.25 - 1.30 for new leathers and increases with deterioration. The triple helical structure integrity can be also evaluated by peak absorbance ratio of amide III and 1450 cm-1, which is equal to or higher than 1 for the intact collagen triple helix and around 0.5 for denatured collagen. Moreover, the relative position of amide I and amide II bands (Δѵ=ѵAIAII) is corresponding to the collagen gelatinization process, and the value is around 90-100 cm-1 for new leathers. The carbonyl index at 1740cm-1 also shows the oxidation of collagen. Accordingly, examination of the structural properties of different parts of the leather showed that as the amount of iron in the leather increased, the integrity of triple-helical structure of collagen collapsed (decrease in IAIII/I1450) and its hydrolysis increased (increase in IAI/IAII). And it also has increased collagen oxidation (increase in I1740/IAI). However, the results did not show a significant change in the index of collagen gelatinization (Δѵ).
Full-Text [PDF 1523 kb]   (1208 Downloads)    
Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Conservation Science
Received: 2019/11/9 | Accepted: 2019/12/24 | Published: 2019/12/30 | ePublished: 2019/12/30

1. Thomson, R., Leather, in Conservation Science: Heritage Materials, E. May and M. Jones, Editors. 2006, Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 92-120.
2. Fredericks, M., Progress in leather conservation. WAAC Newsletter, 1997. 19(2): p. 29-32. [doi.org/10.1016/S0196-4399(97)80006-2] [DOI:10.1016/S0196-4399(97)80006-2]
3. Koochakzaei, A., Structural study of leather relics and assessment of softening and their treatment methods (Case study: a leather bottle attributed to the Seljuk period), M.A. thesis in conservation and restoration of historic and cultural property. 2013, Art University of Isfahan: Isfahan, Iran. [In Persian]
4. Atkin, W.R. and F.C. Thompson, Proctor's Leather Chemists' Pocket Book. 3rd edition ed. 1937, London: E. & E.N. Spon.
5. Kanagy, J.R., Influence of Copper and Iron Salts on The Behavior of Leather in The Oxygen Bomb. Journal of research of the National Bureau of Standards, 1938. 20(6): p. 849-857. [doi.org/10.6028/jres.020.008] [DOI:10.6028/jres.020.008]
6. Bowes, J.H. and A.S. Raistrick, The Action of Heat and Moisture on Leather: Part I. The Storage of a Variety of Commercial Leathers at 40°C and 100per Thousand R.H. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 1961. 56(11): p. 606-615.
7. Bowes, J.H. and A.S. Raistrick, The Action of Heat and Moisture on Leather. Part V. Chemical Changes in Collagen and Tanned Collagen. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association, 1964. 59(4): p. 201-215.
8. Bowes, J.H. and A.S. Raistrick, The Action of Heat and Moisture on Leather. Part VI. Degradation of the Collagen. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association, 1967. 62(4): p. 240-257.
9. Raistrick, A.S., The Action of Heat and Moisture on Leather. Part II. the Storage of Vegetable, Chrome, Semichrome, and Chrome Retan Leathers at Forty and Sixty Degrees Centigrade and 100 Percent R.H. for Varying Periods of Time. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 1961. 56(11): p. 616-632.
10. Bowes, J.H. and J.E. Taylor, Effect of Dry Heat on Collagen and Leather. Journal of American Leather Chemists Association, 1971. 66(3): p. 96-117.
11. Larsen, R., et al., Amino Acid Analysis: Collagen in Vegetable Tanned Leather, in Environment Leather Project: Deterioration and Conservation of Vegetable Tanned Leather. 1997, The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Conservation. p. 39-68.
12. Bowden, D.J. and P. Brimblecombe, The rate of metal catalyzed oxidation of sulfur dioxide in collagen surrogates. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 2003. 4(2): p. 137-147. [doi.org/10.1016/S1296-2074(03)00025-6] [DOI:10.1016/S1296-2074(03)00025-6]
13. Creangă, D.M., The Inventory and Classification of Types of Damage to Objects From Ethnographic Collections. Codrul Cosminului, 2010. 16(2): p. 21-30.
14. Lama, A., Antunes, A. P. M., Fletcher, Y., Guthrie-Strachan, J., & Vidler, K., Investigation of acid-deterioration in leather leading towards finding a suitable product for treatment, in 114th Society of Leather Technologists and Chemists (SLTC) Conference. 2011: University of Northampton, Northampton, UK.
15. Ohlídalová, M., Kučerová, I., Brezová, V., Cílová, Z., & Michalcová, A., Influence of metal cations on leather degradation. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 2017. 24: p. 86-92. [doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2016.10.013] [DOI:10.1016/j.culher.2016.10.013]
16. Koochakzaei, A., H. Ahmadi, and S. Mallakpour, A review of the effect of copper and iron on deterioration of historical leathers, in 5th Iranian congress of trace elements. 2016: Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
17. Puica, N.M. and E. Ardelean, The industrial pollution impact on religious heritage in Romania. European Journal of Science and Theology, 2008. 4(2): p. 51-59.
18. Haines, B.M., Deterioration in leather bookbindings - our present state of knowledge. The Electronic British Library Journal, 1977. 3(1): p. 59-70.
19. Koochakzaei, A. and M.M. Achachluei, Red Stains on Archaeological Leather: Degradation Characteristics of a Shoe from the 11th-13th Centuries (Seljuk Period, Iran). Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, 2015. 54(1): p. 45-56. [doi.org/10.1179/1945233014Y.0000000033] [DOI:10.1179/1945233014Y.0000000033]
20. Duki, A., et al., The stability of metal-tanned and semi-metal tanned collagen, in XXXII Congress of the International :union: of Leather Technologists and Chemists Societies (IULTCS). 2013: Istanbul, Turkey.
21. Haines, B.M., The Fibre Structure of Leather, in Conservation of Leather and Related Materials M. Kite and R. Thomson, Editors. 2006, Butterworth-Heinemann: London. p. 11-21.
22. Vogel, A.I. and G. Svehla, Textbook of Macro and Semimicro Qualitative Inorganic Analysis. 1979, London and New York: Longman Scientific & Technical.
23. Koochakzaei, A., H. Ahmadi, and M. Mohammadi Achachluei, A laboratory Analysis on a Seljuk Leather Bottle Found from Qhalee Kooh-i Qaen Excavation. Journal of Archaeological Studies, 2014. 5(2): p. 129-143. [In Persian]
24. Cheng, M., Peng, W., Hua, P., Chen, Z., Sheng, J., Yang, J., & Wu, Y., In situ formation of pH-responsive Prussian blue for photoacoustic imaging and photothermal therapy of cancer. RSC Advances, 2017. 7(30): p. 18270-18276. [doi.org/10.1039/C7RA01879G] [DOI:10.1039/C7RA01879G]
25. Gallhofer, D. and G.B. Lottermoser, The Influence of Spectral Interferences on Critical Element Determination with Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF). Minerals, 2018. 8(8). [doi.org/10.3390/min8080320] [DOI:10.3390/min8080320]
26. Redus, R. Amptek Application Note XRF-1: XRF Spectra and Spectra Analysis Software. Application Note XRF-1 2008. DOI: https://amptek.com/pdf/xrf_2.pdf.
27. Kolomazník, K., T. Fürst, and M. Bařinová, Non-linear diffusion model for optimization of leather manufacturing: Lime extraction from calcimine. Chemical Engineering Science, 2010. 65(2): p. 780-785. [doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2009.09.030] [DOI:10.1016/j.ces.2009.09.030]
28. Covington, A.D., Tanning Chemistry: The Science of Leather. 2009: Royal Society of Chemistry.
29. Mühlen Axelsson, K., R. Larsen, and D.V.P. Sommer, Dimensional studies of specific microscopic fibre structures in deteriorated parchment before and during shrinkage. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 2012. 13(2): p. 128-136. [doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2011.08.001] [DOI:10.1016/j.culher.2011.08.001]
30. Mühlen Axelsson, K., Larsen, R., Sommer, D. V. P., & Melin, R., Establishing the relation between degradation mechanisms and fibre morphology at microscopic level in order to improve damage diagnosis for parchments - A preliminary study, in ICOM-CC 18th Triennial Conference Preprints, J. Bridgland, Editor. 2017, Paris: International Council of Museums: Copenhagen.
31. Vila, A. and J.F. García, Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Red Pigments and Inks for the Characterization and Differentiation of Contemporary Prints. Analytical Letters, 2012. 45(10): p. 1274-1285. [doi.org/10.1080/00032719.2012.673100] [DOI:10.1080/00032719.2012.673100]
32. Rezende, J. C. T., Ramos, V. H. S., Oliveira, H. A., Oliveira, R. M. P. B., & Jesus, E., Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solutions Using Clay from Calumbi Geological Formation, N. Sra. Socorro, SE State, Brazil. Materials Science Forum, 2018. 912: p. 1-6. [doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.912.1] [DOI:10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.912.1]
33. Namduri, H. and S. Nasrazadani, Quantitative analysis of iron oxides using Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. Corrosion Science, 2008. 50(9): p. 2493-2497. [doi.org/10.1016/j.corsci.2008.06.034] [DOI:10.1016/j.corsci.2008.06.034]
34. Salama, W., M. El Aref, and R. Gaupp, Spectroscopic characterization of iron ores formed in different geological environments using FTIR, XPS, Mössbauer spectroscopy and thermoanalyses. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 2015. 136: p. 1816-1826. [doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2014.10.090] [DOI:10.1016/j.saa.2014.10.090]
35. Makó, É., Kovács, A., Katona, R., & Kristóf, T., Characterization of kaolinite-cetyltrimethylammonium chloride intercalation complex synthesized through eco-friend kaolinite-urea pre-intercalation complex. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2016. 508: p. 265-273. [doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2016.08.035] [DOI:10.1016/j.colsurfa.2016.08.035]
36. Lu, B., Surface Reactivity of Hematite Nanoparticles, in Department of Chemistry. 2014, Umeå University: Umeå, Sweden.
37. Vyskočilová, G., Ebersbach, M., Kopecká, R., Prokeš, L., & Příhoda, J., Model study of the leather degradation by oxidation and hydrolysis. Heritage Science, 2019. 7(1): p. 26. [doi.org/10.1186/s40494-019-0269-7] [DOI:10.1186/s40494-019-0269-7]
38. Koochakzaei, A., H. Ahmadi, and S. Mallakpour, An experimental comparative study of the effect of skin type on the stability of vegetable leather under acidic condition. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 2018. 113(11): p. 345-351.
39. Koochakzaei, A., H. Ahmadi, and M. Mohammadi Achachluei, An experimental comparative study on silicone oil and polyethylene glycol as dry leather treatments. Journal of the American Leather Chemists Association, 2016. 111(10): p. 377-383.
40. Badea, E., Miu, L., Budrugeac, P., Giurginca, M., Mašić, A., Badea, N., & Della Gatta, G., Study of deterioration of historical parchments by various thermal analysis techniques complemented by SEM, FTIR, UV-Vis-NIR and unilateral NMR investigations. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2008. 91(1): p. 17-27. [doi.org/10.1007/s10973-007-8513-x] [DOI:10.1007/s10973-007-8513-x]
41. Derrick, M., Evaluation of the State of Degradation of Dead Sea Scroll Samples Using FTIR Spectroscopy. The book and paper annual, 1991. 10: p. 49-65.
42. Carșote, C., Damage assessment of historical leathers and parchments, in Department of Chemistry. 2017, University of Bucharest.

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.