Compositional Study of the Potteries from Sarcham Bardemar and Kenacheh Sites Hawraman Area Kurdistan Province Iran - Journal of Research on Archaeometry
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year 5, Issue 1 (2019)                   JRA 2019, 5(1): 105-127 | Back to browse issues page

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Saed Mucheshi A, Esna-Ashari A, Rahmati S M, Bahadori R, Madani F S. Compositional Study of the Potteries from Sarcham, Bardemar and Kenacheh Sites, Hawraman Area, Kurdistan Province, Iran. JRA. 2019; 5 (1) :105-127
1- Payame Noor University ,
2- Payame Noor University
3- Dirin Pazhohesh Parine CO.LTD
4- Research Institute of Cultural Heritage & Tourism
5- Research Center for Conservation of Cultural Relics
Abstract:   (3335 Views)
The archaeological sites, including the Sarcham, Bardemar and Kenacheh were excavated during the Darian Dam Archaeological Salvage Project (DDASP) in the Hawraman region, west of the Kurdistan province, western Iran. These sites are adjacent to the Sirwan River. Bardemar is an open-air site and Kenacheh is a cave site. Both sites contain the material cultures of the late Islamic period with simple brown potteries. Mica was the temper which used for making the potteries, so their tempers are shiny and reflect easily the light. The potteries of these two sites were hand-made and not well-fired. The Sarcham is a multi-period site and was recognized the records of Parthian/Sassanid period, Iron Age I, late Bronze Age and Chalcolithic period. The historical period potteries are mostly orange and wheel-made. While, the Iron Age I potteries are divided to buff, orange and grey colors. The grey wares are less abundant. These potteries that have temper were mostly hand-made and under-fired. The same characteristic can be seen in those of the Bronze Age. Potteries related to the Chalcolithic period are categorized into two groups of red slipped and the buff wares. The latter ones that are occasionally characterized by black-on-buff decoration are in minority. During this period the straw-temper was mostly used for tempering the potteries, where they were mostly under-fired. Totally 42 potsherds were selected for X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis including 14 samples from Bardeh Mar, 8 samples from Kenacheh and 20 samples from Sarcham. Some factors that could help to better characterize the soils, including variety of sites in which the potteries are found, their uses and the pottery styles, were used to provenance the potteries of this study. In addition to the data of the potteries, data of three soil samples surrounding the excavated sites were generated. The XRD data showed that calcite, quartz, clay minerals, feldspar and iron oxides are the main pottery-forming minerals, while the calcite, quartz and clay minerals are the main soil-forming minerals. The XRD data suggests derivation of few potteries from non-local materials. However, the XRF data from the potteries revealed that all the samples are cogenetic and originated from the soils of the same geological formation. All the excavated sites are located on the same rock types or the alluvium derived from them. The rocks and consequently the derived alluvium (soils) were formed as the result of the same geological process (es). This is the evidence confirming the results obtained by the XRF data. The XRD and XRF data that are compiled with the geological information of the area where the sites are located indicates that all the potteries of different periods have similar characteristics and made by the use of local materials. All the potteries from Chalcolithic period to the late Islamic period, even the ones with lower frequencies, were made using the local soils. The results are also applicable for the Kenacheh cave, where it has been used by the local transhumances. Location of the Hawraman region in a mountainous area, adjacent to the west-central Zagros and Mesopotamia has caused that the way of living of the ancient people of this area be always questionable. Recognition of the soils that had been the origin of the potteries is helpful for characterization of the geographical origin of the potteries.
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Technical Note: Original Research | Subject: Archaeometry
Received: 2018/12/24 | Accepted: 2019/05/26 | Published: 2019/07/1 | ePublished: 2019/07/1

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